Bovine granulosa cells need to be cultured with serum to generate inflammation in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide. This study shows that it is cholesterol that facilitates this lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cytokine secretion.
During bacterial infections of the bovine uterus or mammary gland, ovarian granulosa cells mount inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In vitro, LPS stimulates granulosa cell secretion of the cytokines IL-1α and IL-1β and the chemokine IL-8. These LPS-stimulated inflammatory responses depend on culturing granulosa cells with serum, but the mechanism is unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that cholesterol supports inflammatory responses to LPS in bovine granulosa cells. We used granulosa cells isolated from 4 to 8 mm and >8.5 mm diameter ovarian follicles and manipulated the availability of cholesterol. We found that serum or follicular fluid containing cholesterol increased LPS-stimulated secretion of IL-1α and IL-1β from granulosa cells. Conversely, depleting cholesterol using methyl-β-cyclodextrin diminished LPS-stimulated secretion of IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-8 from granulosa cells cultured in serum. Follicular fluid contained more high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and granulosa cells expressed the receptor for high-density lipoprotein, scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SCARB1). Furthermore, culturing granulosa cells with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but not low-density lipoprotein or very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, increased LPS-stimulated inflammation in granulosa cells. Cholesterol biosynthesis also played a role in granulosa cell inflammation because RNAi of mevalonate pathway enzymes inhibited LPS-stimulated inflammation. Finally, treatment with follicle-stimulating hormone, but not luteinising hormone, increased LPS-stimulated granulosa cell inflammation, and follicle-stimulating hormone increased SCARB1 protein. However, changes in inflammation were not associated with changes in oestradiol or progesterone secretion. Taken together, these findings imply that cholesterol supports inflammatory responses to LPS in granulosa cells.
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