Allopurinol inhibits excess glucose-induced trophoblast IL-1b and ROS production

in Reproduction

Correspondence: Vikki Abrahams, Email:
Restricted access

Pre-gestational diabetes is a risk factor for preeclampsia, a condition associated with inflammatory markers, a dysregulated angiogenic profile, and impaired placentation. Using an in vitro model, we previously reported that hyperglycemic levels of glucose induced a pro-inflammatory (IL-1β, IL-8, RANTES, GRO-α, anti-angiogenic (sFlt-1), and anti-migratory profile in a human trophoblast cell line. The IL-1β response to excess glucose was mediated by uric acid-induced activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor that inhibits uric acid and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Thus, we sought to test the effects of allopurinol on the IL-1β and other inflammatory, angiogenic and migratory responses that are triggered in the trophoblast by excess glucose. Under excess glucose conditions, allopurinol significantly inhibited trophoblast secretion of inflammatory IL-1β; caspase-1 activity; IL-8; RANTES; and GRO-α. Allopurinol also significantly inhibited excess glucose induced trophoblast secretion of anti-angiogenic sFlt-1. The presence of IL1Ra significantly inhibited excess glucose-induced trophoblast IL-8 and GRO-α secretion but had no effect on RANTES or sFlt-1. Conversely, DPI, a ROS inhibitor, significantly inhibited excess glucose-induced trophoblast GRO-α and sFlt-1 secretion, but had no effect on IL-8 or RANTES. Together, our findings indicate that the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol inhibited excess glucose induced trophoblast IL-1β secretion. Additionally, through its inhibition of both IL-1β and ROS production by the trophoblast, allopurinol reduced the additional pro-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic responses to excess glucose. Thus, allopurinol may be a candidate medication to prevent placental dysfunction and adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preeclampsia, in pregnant women with diabetes.


    Society for Reproduction and Fertility

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 289 289 192
Full Text Views 43 43 27
PDF Downloads 43 43 22