Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 12,351 items for

  • Refine by Access: Content accessible to me x
Clear All
Restricted access

Yan Sun, Yifen Yang, Ziran Jiang, Feiyu wang, Kun Han, Linjun Hong, Jianhua Cao, and Mei Yu

In brief

Transforming the endometrial luminal epithelium (LE) into a receptive state is a requisite event for successful embryo implantation. This study suggests the role of a transcription factor in regulating endometrial LE receptivity.

Abstract

The endometrial luminal epithelium (LE) undergoes extensive remodeling during implantation to establish receptivity of the uterus in response to the conceptus signals, such as interleukin 1β (IL1B). But the mechanisms remain to be fully understood. This study investigated the role of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBP-β) in regulating pig endometrial LE receptivity. Our results showed that C/EBP-β was expressed and activated only in the endometrial LE in an implantation-dependent manner. In addition, C/EBP-β was highly activated at the pre-attachment stage compared to the attachment stage, and its activation was correlated with the expression of IL1B-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinases1/2-p90 ribosomal S6 kinase signaling axis. Subsequent chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-sequencing analysis revealed that the binding of C/EBP-β within the promoter was positively associated with the transcription of genes related to cell remodeling. One such gene is matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP8), which is responsible for extracellular matrix degradation. The expression of MMP8 was abundant at the pre-attachment stage but dramatically declined at the attachment stage in the endometrial LE. Consistent with C/EBP-β, the expression and activation of MMP8 were limited to the endometrial LE in an implantation-dependent manner. Using ChIP-qPCR and electrophoresis mobility shift assay approaches, we demonstrated that C/EBP-β regulated the expression of the MMP8 gene during implantation. Furthermore, we detected that MMP8 and one of its substrates, type II collagen, showed a mutually exclusive expression pattern in pig endometrial LE during implantation. Our findings indicate that C/EBP-β plays a role in pig endometrial LE receptivity by regulating cell remodeling-related genes, such as MMP8, in response to conceptus signals during implantation.

Free access

Saranya Giridharan, Karla J Hutt, and Amy L Winship

Human genome-wide association studies and evidence from animal models link ovarian ageing to double-strand (ds)DNA break repair capacity. Is there a connection between single-strand (ss)DNA repair mechanisms and ovarian function? We hypothesize that endogenous cellular processes subject oocytes to ssDNA lesions, and thus, ssDNA repair capacity is fundamental to their survival and maintenance.

Restricted access

Adrian Guzmán, Camilla H K Hughes, and Bruce D Murphy

In brief

It is well-established that liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH-1/NR5A2) regulates the ovarian function and is required for ovulation and luteinization in mice. In the present experiment, we showed that LRH-1 is required to control vascular changes during ovulation, a novel mechanism of action of this orphan nuclear receptor.

Abstract

Liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH-1/NR5A2) is a key regulator of ovarian function, and recently, it has been suggested that it may regulate changes in follicular angiogenesis, an important event during the ovulatory process and luteal development. In the present experiment, the objective was to determine whether conditional depletion of LRH-1 in mice granulosa cells modified vascular changes during the periovulatory period and to explore the possible mechanisms of this modification. We generated mice (22- to 25-day-old) with specific depletion of LRH-1 in granulosa cells by crossing Lrh1 floxed (Lrh1 f/f) mice with mice expressing Cre-recombinase driven by the anti-Müllerian type II receptor (Amhr2-cre; conditional knockout or cKO mice). We showed that preovulatory follicles of LRH-1 cKO mice had a reduced number of endothelial cells in the theca cell layer at 8 h after human chorionic gonadotropin treatment compared with control (CON) mice. Additionally, mRNA and protein expression of leptin receptor (LEPR), a protein that stimulates angiogenesis in a vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA)-dependent manner, and teratocarcinoma-derived growth factor-1 (TDGF1), which may directly stimulate endothelial cell function, were reduced in LRH-1 cKO mice as compared to CON after the LH surge. These results showed that LRH-1 is necessary for the correct vascular changes that accompany ovulation in mice and that this effect may be regulated through VEGFA-dependent and VEGFA-independent pathways mediated by LEPR and TDGF1.

Free access

Robert John Aitken

Free access

Jacinta H Martin, Brett Nixon, Shenae L Cafe, R John Aitken, Elizabeth G Bromfield, and Tessa Lord

In brief

Post-ovulatory ageing of oocytes leads to poor oocyte and embryo quality as well as abnormalities in offspring. This review provides an update on the contributions of oxidative stress to this process and discusses the current literature surrounding the use of antioxidant media to delay post-ovulatory oocyte ageing.

Abstract

Following ovulation, the metaphase II stage oocyte has a limited functional lifespan before succumbing to a process known as post-ovulatory oocyte ageing. This progressive demise occurs both in vivo and in vitro and is accompanied by a deterioration in oocyte quality, leading to a well-defined sequelae of reduced fertilisation rates, poor embryo quality, post-implantation errors, and abnormalities in the offspring. Although the physiological consequences of post-ovulatory oocyte ageing have largely been characterised, less is known regarding the molecular mechanisms that drive this process. This review presents an update on the established relationships between the biochemical changes exhibited by the ageing oocyte and the myriad of symptoms associated with the ageing phenotype. In doing so, we consider the molecular events that are potentially involved in orchestrating post-ovulatory ageing with a particular focus on the role of oxidative stress. We highlight the mounting evidence that oxidative stress acts as an initiator for a cascade of events that create the aged oocyte phenotype. Specifically, oxidative stress has the capacity to disrupt mitochondrial function and directly damage multiple intracellular components of the oocyte such as lipids, proteins, and DNA. Finally, this review addresses emerging strategies for delaying post-ovulatory oocyte ageing with emphasis placed on the promise afforded by the use of selected antioxidants to guide the development of media tailored for the preservation of oocyte integrity during in vitro fertilisation procedures.

Free access

Fernando J Peña and Zamira Gibb

In brief

The growing understanding of the mechanisms regulating redox homeostasis in the stallion spermatozoa, together with its interactions with energetic metabolism, is providing new clues applicable to the improvement of sperm conservation in horses. Based on this knowledge, new extenders, adapted to the biology of the stallion spermatozoa, are expected to be developed in the near future.

Abstract

The preservation of semen either by refrigeration or cryopreservation is a principal component of most animal breeding industries. Although this procedure has been successful in many species, in others, substantial limitations persist. In the last decade, mechanistic studies have shed light on the molecular changes behind the damage that spermatozoa experience during preservation. Most of this damage is oxidative, and thus in this review, we aim to provide an updated overview of recent discoveries about how stallion spermatozoa maintain redox homeostasis, and how the current procedures of sperm preservation disrupt redox regulation and cause sperm damage which affects viability, functionality, fertility and potentially the health of the offspring. We are optimistic that this review will promote new ideas for further research to improve sperm preservation technologies, promoting translational research with a wide scope for applicability not only in horses but also in other animal species and humans.

Free access

Ewa Rudnicka, Anna Maria Duszewska, Marek Kucharski, Paweł Tyczyński, and Roman Smolarczyk

In brief

A genetic, epigenetic, and environmental association exists between oxidative stress (OS) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), expressed in a multifaceted clinical profile. This review summarizes and discusses the role of OS in the pathogenesis of PCOS syndrome, focusing on metabolic, reproductive, and cancer complications.

Abstract

Oxidative stress (OS), an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in cells, is one of many factors playing essential roles in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS is described mainly as a disproportion of reproductive hormones, leading to chronic anovulation and infertility in women. Interestingly, OS in PCOS may be associated with many disorders and diseases. This review focuses on characteristic markers of OS in PCOS and the relationship between OS and PCOS related to insulin resistance (IR), hyperandrogenemia, obesity, chronic inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Interestingly, in patients with PCOS, an increase in oxidative status and insufficient compensation of the increase in antioxidant status before any cardiovascular complications are observed. Moreover, free radicals promote carcinogenesis in PCOS patients. However, despite these data, it has not been established whether oxygen stress influences PCOS development or a secondary disorder resulting from hyperglycemia, IR, and cardiovascular and cancer complications in women.

Free access

Joshua C Deluao, Yasmyn Winstanley, Rebecca L Robker, Leanne Pacella-Ince, Macarena B Gonzalez, and Nicole O McPherson

In brief

Reactive oxygen species are generated throughout the pre-implantation period and are necessary for normal embryo formation. However, at pathological levels, they result in reduced embryo viability which can be mediated through factors delivered by sperm and eggs at conception or from the external environment.

Abstract

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) occur naturally in pre-implantation embryos as a by-product of ATP generation through oxidative phosphorylation and enzymes such as NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase. Biological concentrations of ROS are required for crucial embryonic events such as pronuclear formation, first cleavage and cell proliferation. However, high concentrations of ROS are detrimental to embryo development, resulting in embryo arrest, increased DNA damage and modification of gene expression leading to aberrant fetal growth and health. In vivo embryos are protected against oxidative stress by oxygen scavengers present in follicular and oviductal fluids, while in vitro, embryos rely on their own antioxidant defence mechanisms to protect against oxidative damage, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione and glutamylcysteine synthestase. Pre-implantation embryonic ROS originate from eggs, sperm and embryos themselves or from the external environment (i.e. in vitro culture system, obesity and ageing). This review examines the biological and pathological roles of ROS in the pre-implantation embryo, maternal and paternal origins of embryonic ROS, and from a clinical perspective, we comment on the growing interest in combating increased oxidative damage in the pre-implantation embryo through the addition of antioxidants.

Free access

Aron Moazamian, Parviz Gharagozloo, Robert J Aitken, and Joël R Drevet

In brief

Oxidative stress is recognized as an underlying driving factor of both telomere dysfunction and human subfertility/infertility. This review briefly reassesses telomere integrity as a fertility biomarker before proposing a novel, mechanistic rationale for the role of oxidative stress in the seemingly paradoxical lengthening of sperm telomeres with aging.

Abstract

The maintenance of redox balance in the male reproductive tract is critical to sperm health and function. Physiological levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote sperm capacitation, while excess ROS exposure, or depleted antioxidant defenses, yields a state of oxidative stress which disrupts their fertilizing capacity and DNA structural integrity. The guanine moiety is the most readily oxidized of the four DNA bases and gets converted to the mutagenic lesion 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Numerous studies have also confirmed oxidative stress as a driving factor behind accelerated telomere shortening and dysfunction. Although a clear consensus has not been reached, clinical studies also appear to associate telomere integrity with fertility outcomes in the assisted reproductive technology setting. Intriguingly, while sperm cellular and molecular characteristics make them more susceptible to oxidative insult than any other cell type, they are also the only cell type in which telomere lengthening accompanies aging. This article focuses on the oxidative stress response pathways to propose a mechanism for the explanation of this apparent paradox.

Free access

R John Aitken, Elizabeth G Bromfield, and Zamira Gibb

In brief

Many aspects of the reproductive process are impacted by oxidative stress. This article summarizes the chemical nature of reactive oxygen species and their role in both the physiological regulation of reproductive processes and the pathophysiology of infertility.

Abstract

This article lays out the fundamental principles of oxidative stress. It describes the nature of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the way in which these potentially toxic metabolites interact with cells and how they impact both cellular function and genetic integrity. The mechanisms by which ROS generation is enhanced to the point that the cells’ antioxidant defence mechanisms are overwhelmed are also reviewed taking examples from both the male and female reproductive system, with a focus on gametogenesis and fertilization. The important role of external factors in exacerbating oxidative stress and impairing reproductive competence is also examined in terms of their ability to disrupt the physiological redox regulation of reproductive processes. Developing diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to cope with oxidative stress within the reproductive system will depend on the development of a deeper understanding of the nature, source, magnitude, and location of such stress in order to fashion personalized treatments that meet a given patient’s clinical needs.