Artificial intelligence (AI) has experienced rapid growth over the past few years, moving from the experimental to the implementation phase in various fields, including medicine. Advances in learning algorithms and theories, the availability of large datasets and improvements in computing power have contributed to breakthroughs in current AI applications. Machine learning (ML), a subset of AI, allows computers to detect patterns from large complex datasets automatically and uses these patterns to make predictions. AI is proving to be increasingly applicable to healthcare, and multiple machine learning techniques have been used to improve the performance of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Despite various challenges, the integration of AI and reproductive medicine is bound to give an essential direction to medical development in the future. In this review, we discuss the basic aspects of AI and machine learning, and we address the applications, potential limitations and challenges of AI. We also highlight the prospects and future directions in the context of reproductive medicine.
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Renjie Wang, Wei Pan, Lei Jin, Yuehan Li, Yudi Geng, Chun Gao, Gang Chen, Hui Wang, Ding Ma and Shujie Liao
Huitao Li, Shiwen Liu, Siwen Wu, Linxi Li, Renshan Ge and C Yan Cheng
Recent studies have shown that the testis is producing several biologically active peptides, namely the F5- and the NC1-peptides from laminin-γ3 and collagen α3 (IV) chain, respectively, that promotes blood-testis barrier (BTB) remodeling and also elongated spermatid release at spermiation. Also the LG3/4/5-peptide from laminin-α2 chain also promotes BTB integrity which is likely being used for the assembly of a “new” BTB behind preleptotene spermatocytes under transport at the immunological barrier. These findings thus provides a new opportunity for investigators to better understand the biology of spermatogenesis. Herein, we briefly summarize these recent findings and provide a critique update and a hypothetical model which can serve as the framework for studies in the years to come.
Rebekka Einenkel, Katrin Regina Helene Packhäuser, Jens Ehrhardt, Anne Tüngler, Marek Zygmunt and Damián Oscar Muzzio
Alterations in the immunologic balance during pregnancy have been associated with poor pregnancy outcomes. The underlying mechanisms are complex and mouse models delivered valuable information on inflammatory imbalance in disturbed pregnancies and served as model to test potential anti-inflammatory therapies. CD83 is a transmembrane protein (mCD83) with a soluble form (sCD83) which possesses strong anti-inflammatory properties. During murine pregnancy, upregulated mCD83 expression induces sCD83 release after in vitro stimulation with LPS, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin. The release mechanism of sCD83 and its control are yet to be elucidated. In this study, the expression of mCD83 and sCD83 has been extensively studied in the CBA/J × DBA/2J mouse model of pro-inflammatory-mediated pregnancy disturbances. mCD83 was higher expressed on splenic B cells, uterus-draining lymph nodes T cells and dendritic cells from mice with poor pregnancy outcome (PPOM) compared to mice with good pregnancy outcome (GPOM). PPOM, however, was accompanied by lower sCD83 serum levels. In vitro treatment of splenic B cells with progesterone led to a reduction of TIMP1 expression, mCD83 expression and sCD83 release, while TIMP1 treatment had a positive effect on sCD83 availability. These results suggest that tissue and matrix components are involved in the regulation of CD83 in murine pro-inflammatory pregnancies.
Imke Bommer, Lorena Juriol, Damián Muzzio, Natalin Valeff, Jens Ehrhardt, Franziska Matzner, Katharina Ziegler, Kristin Malinowsky, María Silvia Ventimiglia, Marek Zygmunt and Federico Jensen
The amniotic fluid provides mechanical protection and immune defense against pathogens to the fetus. Indeed, components of the innate and adaptive immunity, including B cells, have been described in the amniotic fluid. However, limited information concerning phenotype and functionality of amniotic fluid B cells is available. Hence, we aimed to perform a full phenotypical and functional characterization of amniotic fluid B cells in normal pregnancy and in a mouse model of preterm birth. Phenotypic analysis depicted the presence of two populations of amniotic fluid B cells: an immature population, resembling B1 progenitor cells and a more mature population. Further isolation and in vitro co-culture with a bone marrow stroma cell line demonstrated the capacity of the immature B cells to mature. This was further supported by spontaneous production of IgM, a feature of the B1 B cell sub-population. An additional in vitro stimulation with lipopolysaccharide induced the activation of amniotic fluid B cells as well as the production of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, amniotic fluid B cells were expanded in the acute phase of LPS-induced preterm birth. Overall our data add new insight not only on the phenotype and developmental stage of the amniotic fluid B1 B cells but especially on their functionality. This provides important information for a better understanding of their role within the amniotic fluid as immunological protective barrier, especially with regard to intraamniotic infection and preterm birth.
Alessandra Santillo, Massimo Venditti, Sergio Minucci, Gabriella Chieffi Baccari, Sara Falvo, Luigi Rosati and Maria Maddalena Di Fiore
D-Aspartate (D-Asp) is an endogenous amino acid that plays a central role in the development of the central nervous system (CNS) and functioning of the neuroendocrine system. In line with its functions, it is abundantly present in the CNS and reproductive systems of vertebrates and invertebrates. It has been implicated in the biosynthesis and/or secretion of hormones and factors that are involved in various reproductive functions, such as GnRH from the hypothalamus and testosterone from the testis. We conducted an in vivo study consisting of acute (i.p. injection of 2 µmol/g body weight) and chronic (15 days drinking solution) administration of D-Asp to adult rats to understand the signaling pathways elicited by D-Asp in the rat testis. We found that D-Asp upregulated the expression of prolyl endopeptidase (PREP), a serine protease having a pivotal role in the regulation of mammalian spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed its overexpression in Leydig cells, Sertoli cells and spermatogonia. Moreover, PREP was found to co-localize with GluA2/3, an AMPA receptor subunit, whose protein expression also increased after D-Asp treatments. Finally, we found a significant increase in ERK and Akt activities in the testis of rats treated with D-Asp. Since PREP is known to be involved in regulating GnRH levels and in germ cell differentiation, we hypothesize D-Asp to play a pivotal role in regulating hormone homeostasis and spermatogenesis through activation of PREP, AMPAR, ERK and Akt.
Lan Xiao, Qiong Zhang, Xi Huang, Aihua He, Shi Xie and Yanping Li
Uterine peristalsis plays a vital role in fertility and female reproductive health. Although uterine peristalsis is thought to be correlated with some hormones and uterine pathologies, the physiological mechanisms underlying uterine peristalsis remain not quite clear. This study aimed to identify changes in microRNA (miRNA) in the endometrium of patients with abnormally high-frequency (hyper-) and low-frequency (hypo-) peristalsis to clarify whether miRNAs regulate uterine peristalsis. We used a miRNA microarray and RT-qPCR to identify changes in miRNA in endometrial tissue, a collagen gel contraction assay on co-cultured human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) to analyze how the altered regulation of miRNAs influences uterine smooth muscle (USM) contraction, and western blots and other assays to elucidate the potential mechanisms involved. We found that among several differentially-regulated miRNAs, miR-29c-3p was overexpressed in endometrial samples from patients with hypoperistalsis; oxytocin receptor (OXTR) expression was low in endometrial samples from patients with hypoperistalsis. Bioinformatic analysis and luciferase assays indicated that OXTR is a target of miR-29c-3p, which attenuates its expression. Additionally, downregulation of miR-29c-3p in ESC cultures increased the expression of aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C3 (AKR1C3) and increased release of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2α). Co-cultured ESCs overexpressing miR-29c-3p reduced USM cell contractions; the opposite tendency was found when ESCs were transfected with a miR-29c-3p inhibitor. To conclude, miR-29c-3p in endometrial cells regulates uterine contractility by attenuating expression of OXTR and reducing PGF2α release.
Tine-Tsan Lin, Po-Chiang Lan, Yi-Jui Hsieh and Yung-Song Wang
Japanese eels are commercially valuable species in Asian aquaculture. This study evaluated whether salmon pituitary extract (SPE) or 17β-estradiol (E2) treatment can induce cytotoxic activity in eel ovarian follicles. Follicular cells died after exposure SPE for 24-h culture in an in vitro culture. Moreover, the E2 treatment also significantly reduced follicular cell counts. These results reveal that the inhibition of follicular cell numbers by SPE may occur through SPE-induced steroidogenesis. Results of a quantitative PCR analysis indicated that adding E2 to the culture decreased bcl2 and increased dnmt1 mRNA expression in Japanese eel follicular cells after 24 h. The results of a promoter assay revealed that E2 significantly increase dnmt1 promoter activity through estrogen receptor-binding site. An in silico analysis predicted several putative transcription factors targeting the bcl2 gene promoter region. Methylation of the bcl2 promoter accounted for the downregulation of bcl2 by E2-mediated dnmt1. The DNA methylation level of the bcl2 gene was significantly higher in E2-treated follicular cells than that in the control group. Finally, the E2-induced hypermethylation pattern of the bcl2 promoter and the reduction in follicular cell numbers were suppressed by adding an MTase inhibitor. Our findings demonstrate that estrogen has a negative effect on the reproductive system of female eels by regulating an epigenetic mechanism during artificial maturation.
Edwin Mellisho, Mario Briones, Alejandra Estela Velasquez, Joel Cabezas, Fidel Ovidio Castro and Lleretny Rodriguez-Alvarez
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by blastocysts may be clinically relevant, as indicator of embryo viability on in vitro fertilization. We tested if the characteristics of extracellular vesicles secreted during blastulation are related to embryo viability. Morulae were individually cultured in SOF media depleted of EVs until day 7.5 post IVF. Viable embryos were determined by a system of extended in vitro culture of bovine embryos until Day 11 (post-hatching development). Afterward, a retrospective classification of blastocyst and culture media was performed based on blastulation time (early -EB or late blastulation-LB) and post-hatching development at day 11 (viable -V or non-viable embryo-NV). A total of 254 blastocysts and their culture media were classified in four groups (V-EB, NV-EB, V-LB, NV-LB). Group V-EB had a larger blastocyst diameter (170.8 μm), higher proportion of good-quality blastocysts (77%) and larger mean size of population of EVs (122.9 nm), although the highest concentration of EVs (5.75 x 109 particles / mL) were in group NV-EB. Furthermore, small RNA sequencing detected two biotypes, miRNA (86 to 91%) and snoRNA (9 to 14%), with a total of 182 and 32 respectively. In differential expression analysis of miRNAs between V versus NV blastocysts, there were 12 miRNAs up-regulated and 15 miRNAs down-regulated. Binary logistic regression was used to construct a non-invasive novel model to select viable embryos, based on a combination of variables of blastocyst morphokinetics and EVs characteristics, the ROC-AUC was 0.853. We concluded that characteristics of EVs secreted during blastulation vary depending on embryo quality.
Luiz Sergio Almeida Camargo, Tiphaine Aguirre-Lavin, Pierre Adenot, Thamiris Dornelas Araujo, Vivian Rachel Araujo Mendes, Iuri Drumond Louro, Nathalie Beaujean and Eliza Diniz Souza
Heat stress compromises bovine oocyte developmental competence, but the effects of high temperature during oocyte maturation on embryo chromatin organization is unknown. In this study bovine oocytes were exposed to heat shock (41°C) for 12 h during in vitro maturation and then submitted to in vitro fertilization. The heat shock did not affect (P > 0.05) the cleavage but reduced (P < 0.01) the blastocyst rate on Day 7 and Day 8. No effect (P > 0.05) on total cell number was found, but the heat shock increased (P < 0.05) the proportion of apoptotic cells in blastocysts at Day 8. Immunofluorescence analysis of H3K9me3 and HP1 was performed in embryos at 52 h post in vitro fertilization. An accumulation of H3K9me3 in the nuclei of embryos derived from heat-shocked oocytes at four-cell and eight-cell stages was found. Also, a non-expected higher proportion (P < 0.05) of four-cell stage embryos displaying nuclei with increased HP1 fluorescence was observed, suggesting an abnormal chromatin compaction in embryos from heat-shocked oocytes. Embryos at eight-cell stage derived from heat-shocked oocytes displayed lower (P < 0.05) relative amount of HSP40 transcripts than control ones. In conclusion, heat shock before fertilization has an effect on embryo chromatin, influencing the accumulation of H3K9me3 and HP1 in early embryos as well as further development.
Lydia K Wooldridge, Sally E Johnson, Rebecca R Cockrum and Alan D Ealy
Supplementing interleukin-6 (IL6) to in vitro-produced bovine embryos increases inner cell mass (ICM) cell numbers in blastocysts. A series of studies were completed to further dissect this effect. Treatment with IL6 increased ICM cell numbers in early, regular and expanded blastocysts but had no effect on morulae total cell number. Treatment with IL6 for 30 min induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and nuclear translocation in all blastomeres in early morulae and specifically within the ICM in blastocysts. Also, IL6 supplementation increased SOCS3 mRNA abundance, a STAT3-responsive gene, in blastocysts. Chemical inhibition of Janus kinase (JAK) activity from day 5 to day 8 prevented STAT3 activation and the IL6-induced ICM cell number increase. Global transcriptome analysis of blastocysts found that transcripts for IL6 and its receptor subunits (IL6R and IL6ST) were the most abundantly expressed IL6 family ligand and receptors. These results indicate that IL6 increases ICM cell numbers as the ICM lineage emerges at the early blastocyst stage through a STAT3-dependent mechanism. Also, IL6 appears to be the primary IL6 cytokine family member utilized by bovine blastocysts to control ICM cell numbers.