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Qiu-Chan Qu, Hui-Hui Shen, Cheng-Jie Wang, Xin-Yan Zhang, Jiang-Nan Wu, Hang-Cheng Lu, Xue-Min Qiu, Jia-Yi Ding, Xiao-Fang Tan, Li-Bing Liu, and Ming-Qing Li

A successful pregnancy requires sufficient decidualization of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs). CD82, a metastasis suppressor, is a critical regulator for trophoblast invasion but the effect in decidualization was largely unknown. Here we reported that there was a high level of CD82 in DSC by the immunohistochemistry staining and flow cytometer analysis. Stimulation with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) elevated the expression of CD82 in ESCs. In contrast, celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, significantly downregulated the expression of CD82 in decidual stromal cells (DSCs). Bioinformatics analysis and further research showed that recombinant human interleukin (IL)-1β protein (rhIL-1β) upregulated CD82 in ESCs. Of note, blocking IL-1β signaling with anti-human IL-1β neutralizing antibody could reverse the stimulatory effect of PGE2 on CD82 in ESCs. Silencing CD82 resulted in the decease of the decidualization markers PRL and IGFBP1 mRNA levels in DSCs. More importantly, we observed rhIL-1β also upregulated the expression of COX-2, and the upregulation of PRL and IGFBP1 induced by rhIL-1β could be abolished by celecoxib in ESCs or CD82 deficiency in DSCs. This study suggests that CD82 should be a novel promotor for decidualization under a positive regulation of the COX-2/PGE2/IL-1β positive feedback loop.

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Hui-Hui Shen, Cheng-Jie Wang, Xin-Yan Zhang, Yan-Ran Sheng, Shao-Liang Yang, Zi-Meng Zheng, Jia-Lu Shi, Xue-Min Qiu, Feng Xie, and Ming-Qing Li

Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1, encoded by the HMOX1 gene) is the rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes heme degradation, and it has been reported to exert antioxidative effects. Recently, decidualization has been reported to confer resistance to environmental stress signals, protecting against oxidative stress. However, the effects and regulatory mechanism of HO-1 in decidual stromal cells (DSCs) during early pregnancy remain unknown. Here, we verified that the levels of HO-1 and heme in DSCs are increased compared with those in endometrial stromal cells. Additionally, the upregulation of HIF1A expression led to increased HMOX1 expression in DSCs possibly via nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (encoded by the NFE2L2 gene). However, addition of the competitive HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX resulted in an increase in HIF1A expression. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), decreased the cell viability of DSCs in vitro, and upregulated the level of heme. As an HO-1 inducer, cobalt protoporphyrin IX decreased ROS production and significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of H2O2 on cell viability. More importantly, patients with unexplained spontaneous abortion had low levels of HO-1 that were insufficient to protect against oxidative stress. This study suggests that the upregulation of HO-1 expression via HIF1A protects DSCs against excessive heme-mediated oxidative stress. Furthermore, the excessive oxidative stress injury and impaired viability of DSCs associated with decreased HO-1 expression should be associated with the occurrence and/or development of spontaneous abortion.