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Deepali Sundrani, Preeti Chavan-Gautam, Hemlata Pisal, Savita Mehendale, and Sadhana Joshi

homocysteine, oxidative stress, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA; Guo et al . 2006 , Kundu et al . 2009 , Solakivi et al . 2009 , Tyagi et al . 2009 , Zainal et al . 2009 , Zeydanli & Turan 2009 , Ke et al . 2010 ). In view of

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Michael K Wong, Nicole G Barra, Nadia Alfaidy, Daniel B Hardy, and Alison C Holloway

some of the major cellular mechanisms involved, including oxidative stress, inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which are suggested to underlie nicotine-induced impairments in pregnancy and reproductive organ function. Pharmacology of

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Nicolas Aranciaga, James D Morton, Debra K Berg, and Jessica L Gathercole

context of early embryo development. Figure 2 Potential biomarkers of uterine suitability for pregnancy related to inflammation and oxidative stress in the cow’s reproductive tract, across early pregnancy and oestrus. ‘Exogenous’ refers to

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Fátima Nogales, M Luisa Ojeda, María Fenutría, M Luisa Murillo, and Olimpia Carreras

offspring ( Ward et al . 2008 , Gunter et al . 2013 ). Several studies have suggested oxidative stress as another agent responsible for impaired reproductive function and intrauterine growth retardation ( Biri et al . 2007 , Hracsko et al . 2008

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Graham J Burton, Tereza Cindrova-Davies, Hong wa Yung, and Eric Jauniaux

damage can occur to any biomolecule in the immediate vicinity, often initiating chain reactions. This condition is referred to as oxidative stress and may lead to inflammation, senescence, apoptosis and necrosis. Placental oxidative stress lies at the

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Laura Terzaghi, Alberto Maria Luciano, Priscila C Dall’Acqua, Silvia C Modina, John J Peluso, and Valentina Lodde

, experimental evidences have indicated that NCL has protective roles under cellular stress conditions such as heat stress, gamma irradiation and oxidative stress ( Jia et al. 2017 ). Furthermore, translocation from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm or cytoplasm

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F C F Dias, M I R Khan, M A Sirard, G P Adams, and J Singh

suggest that superstimulation can trigger genes related to the oxidative stress response of embryos of mice ( Rossignol et al . 2006 , Fauque et al . 2007 , Sato et al . 2007 ) and cattle ( Mundim et al . 2009 ). However, these studies involved

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Young Sik Choi, SiHyun Cho, Seok Kyo Seo, Joo Hyun Park, Seok Hyun Kim, and Byung Seok Lee

. 2008 ). Abnormal folliculogenesis, elevated oxidative stress, altered immune function, changes in the hormonal milieu, or decreased endometrial receptivity may also contribute to reduced fertility ( Harkki et al . 2010 ). Oxidative stress develops due

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Joseph Bagi Suleiman, Victor Udo Nna, Zaida Zakaria, Zaidatul Akmal Othman, Ainul Bahiyah Abu Bakar, Umar Zayyanu Usman, and Mahaneem Mohamed

. Besides testosterone decline, studies have implicated penile oxidative stress, which also occurs in obesity through superoxide and reactive oxygen species generation, in erectile dysfunction ( Minhas et al. 2002 ). This is supported by reports which

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Yue Liu and Zhide Ding

or entered from the circulation during systematic inflammation, impinge upon the critical regulations of the spermatogenesis and sperm maturation. Obesity enhances oxidative stress One of the main factors relevant to disrupted sperm function