Oviduct cells produce a favorable environment for the development of gametes by generating multiple growth factors. Particularly, in canine species, immature oocytes undergo serial maturation processes in the oviduct, while the other mammals already possess matured oocytes in ovulatory follicles. However, little is known about the potential effect exhibited by the components released from canine oviduct cells (OCs) for modulating the biological function of oocytes. Recently, exosomes are regarded as promising extracellular vesicles because they represent considerable data for molecular cargo. Therefore, we first investigated the effect of canine oviductal exosomes (OC-Exo) on oocyte development via EGFR/MAPK pathway. Our results showed that OC-Exo labeled with PHK67 are successfully incorporated with cumulus cells and oocytes during IVM. Also, OC-Exo markedly increased the proportion of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) exhibiting cumulus expansion as well as cumulus cell proliferation and maturation rate of oocytes (P < 0.05). Furthermore, gene expression patterns related with EGFR/MAPK pathway including EGFR, PKA, TACE/ADAM17, MAPK1/3, MAPK14, PTGS2, TNFAIP6, GDF9, and BMP15 were positively modified in COCs cultured with OC-Exo (P < 0.05). In addition, OC-Exo significantly up-regulated the protein expression levels of p-EGFR, p-MAPK1/3, GDF9 and BMP15 in COCs (P < 0.05). Consequently, the current study provides a model for understanding the roles of OC-Exo as bioactive molecules for canine oocyte maturation via EGFR/MAPK pathway, which would open a new avenue for the application of exosomes to improve assisted reproductive technology in mammals, including humans.