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T. Bäckström, K. Carlström, B. von Schoultz and J. Toivonen

Summary. Intravaginal rings containing progesterone were inserted on Day 5 of the cycle to 8 healthy, normally menstruating women. Blood samples were taken during Days 4–22 of the cycle at 2–3-day intervals.

The plasma progesterone levels obtained after the insertion were between 7·5 and 21 nmol/1. Four subjects showed no increase in plasma oestradiol concentrations. The subjects showing increased plasma oestradiol levels also showed a positive feedback on LH, resulting in ovulation or an LH peak. The results suggest that progesterone may have a local inhibitory effect on the follicular oestradiol production.

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N. Fröhlander, A. A. Gidley-Baird, J. Hau and B. von Schoultz

Summary. In male mice which normally do not synthesize measurable amounts of the pregnancy-associated murine protein-1 (PAMP-1), synthesis occurred when there was continuous infusion of hGH but not by repeated subcutaneous injections. The decrease in PAMP-1 values after hypophysectomy in female mice was rapidly restored by continuous infusion of hGH, 80 μg daily. PAMP-1 has generally been regarded as an 'oestrogen-inducible' protein regulated by the oestrogen/androgen balance. Our results suggest that the apparent effects of sex steroids are mediated via the pituitary and possibly growth hormone secretion.

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L. Eriksson, L. Carlsson-Bostedt, J. Oscarsson, S. Edén, T. Stigbrand and B. von Schoultz

Summary. Serum concentrations of pregnancy-associated murine protein-1 (PAMP-1) were followed in hypophysectomized adult female rats during treatment with oestradiol and continuous or intermittent human growth hormone (hGH). After hypophysectomy a rapid decrease in PAMP-1 values was recorded while concentrations of albumin and the acute phase α2-macroglobulin were unaffected. PAMP-1 values were completely restored by continuous infusion of hGH (1·4 i.u./kg/day). Neither the same dose of hGH given as two daily injections nor oestrogen replacement treatment had any effect. It is concluded that the serum concentration of PAMP-1 in the non-pregnant rat is regulated by the sexually dimorphic secretory pattern of GH.

Keywords: pregnancy-associated protein-1; growth hormone secretion; rat

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J. Oscarsson, L. Carlsson-Bostedt, L. Carlsson, T. Stigbrand, B. von Schoultz and S. Edén

Summary. Continuous infusion of bovine GH to hypophysectomized non-pregnant rats increased serum concentrations of pregnancy-associated murine protein-1 (PAMP-1) to the levels of adult female rats and pregnant rats. Serum concentrations of PAMP-1 were followed from Day 16 of gestation until 3 days after parturition in hypophysectomized (on Day 14 of gestation) and intact pregnant rats. In the intact pregnant rat there was a decrease in PAMP-1 values from Day 16 until delivery. The serum concentrations of PAMP-1 in hypophysectomized pregnant rats were similar to those in intact pregnant rats before parturition, but PAMP-1 concentrations decreased markedly after parturition in the hypophysectomized rats.

We suggest that the serum concentrations of PAMP-1 can be maintained without pituitary GH in late pregnancy, while serum values of PAMP-1 in non-pregnant rats is dependent upon a continuous secretion of pituitary GH.

Keywords: pituitary; hypophysectomy; pregnancy; growth hormone; pregnancy-associated murine protein-1; rat