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The authors analyse some of the results of examination of 607 sterile patients, in which probatory excision from the testicles had been performed. They have reached the following conclusions.

Testicular biopsy is a decisive diagnostic method in the case of a repeated finding of azoospermia. In these cases, the following three conditions must be satisfied before probatory excision is carried out:

  1. The spermatic fluid must contain vesicular secretions.
  2. The long axis of the testes must be longer than 30 mm.
  3. The patient must not have suffered from epididymitis of tuberculous origin.

In the cases of obstructive azoospermia, the authors recommend a careful evaluation of the germinal tissue before an eventual vasoepididymal anastomosis.

In cases of repeated findings of oligozoospermia gravis, they do not examine the germinal epithelium as in a majority of ninety-eight patients with this finding the state of germinal tissue was markedly deficient and not suitable for treatment.

From the therapeutic point of view, the authors exclude by means of testicular biopsy from long-term and expensive treatment those cases in which the histopathological picture in the testes does not justify any hope of a favourable result of therapy.

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The authors performed therapeutic donor insemination in 219 women. In 114 cases, 132 conceptions were obtained. The average number of inseminations for one conception was 3·8. More than half of the women in the `unsuccessful' subgroup did not exhaust the therapeutic possibilities of this treatment, i.e. aid extending over the period of five to six cycles. Seventeen losses in pregnancy, or within 10 days after delivery, correspond to less than 13%. One boy out of 108 living children (fifty boys and fifty-eight girls) had a developmental anomaly (penile hypospadias).