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Karen R Kilcoyne and Rod T Mitchell

Transplantation of testicular tissues and cells has been proposed as a future clinical option for patients who have had testicular tissue cryopreserved prior to receiving gonadotoxic therapies. Whilst this approach remains experimental, success using animal models and successful transplantation of ovarian tissue resulting in live births in female patients provides optimism for the development of clinical applications involving transplantation of testicular tissue in males. Careful consideration must be given to patient groups that may benefit from this approach in the future. Current research is focused on optimising patient selection, methods for tissue cryopreservation and development of transplantation techniques that might restore sperm production or future fertility in males. Crucially, attention must be focused on ensuring safety of transplantation, including eliminating the potential for infection or re-introducing malignancy. Furthermore the genetic/epigenetic integrity of any gametes generated must be ensured to allow generation of normal offspring. This review will provide an overview of the current status of transplantation of testicular tissue and cells for fertility preservation in males.