In this study, we evaluated whether maternal obesity (MO) affects testis development and gonocyte differentiation in the rat from 0.5 to 14.5 postnatal days. Male Wistar rats were used at 0.5, 4.5, 7.5, and 14.5 days post partum (dpp). These rats were born from obese mothers, previously fed with a high-fat diet (20% saturated fat), for 15 weeks, or normal mothers that had received a balanced murine diet (4% lipids). MO did not affect testis weight or histology at birth but changed the migratory behavior of gonocytes. The density of relocated cells was higher in MO pups at 0.5 dpp, decreased at 4.5 dpp, and differed from those of control pups, where density increased exponentially from 0.5 to 7.5 dpp. The numerical density of gonocytes within seminiferous cords did not vary in MO, in relation to control neonates, for any age considered, but the testis weight was 50% lower at 4.5 dpp. A wide variation in plasmatic testosterone and estrogen levels was observed among the groups during the first week of age and MO pups exhibited higher steroid concentrations at 4.5 dpp, in comparison with controls. At this age, higher estrogen levels of MO pups impaired the gonocyte proliferation. At 7.5 dpp, the testicular size and other parameters of gonocyte development are retrieved. In conclusion, MO and saturated lipid diets disturb gonocyte development and sexual steroid levels during the first days of life, with recovery at prepubertal age.
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Caroline Maria Christante, Sebastião Roberto Taboga, Maria Etelvina Pinto-Fochi, and Rejane Maira Góes
Maria Etelvina Pinto-Fochi, Eloísa Zanin Pytlowanciv, Vanessa Reame, Alex Rafacho, Daniele Lisboa Ribeiro, Sebastião Roberto Taboga, and Rejane Maira Góes
This study evaluated the impact of a high-fat diet (HFD) during different stages of rat life, associated or not with maternal obesity, on the content of sex steroid hormones and morphophysiology of Leydig cells. The following periods of development were examined: gestation (O1), gestation and lactation (O2), from weaning to adulthood (O3), from lactation to adulthood (O4), gestation to adulthood (O5), and after sexual maturation (O6). The HFD contained 20% unsaturated fat, whereas the control diet had 4% fat. Maternal obesity was induced by feeding HFD 15 weeks before mating. All HFD groups presented increased body weight, hyperinsulinemia and reduced insulin sensitivity. Except for O1, all HFD groups exhibited a higher adiposity index, hyperleptinemia, reduced testosterone and estradiol testicular levels, and decreased testicular 17β-HSD enzyme . Morphometrical analyses indicated atrophy of Leydig cells in the O2 group. Myelin vesicles were observed in the mitochondrial matrix of Leydig cells in O3, O4, O5 and O6, and autophagosomes containing mitochondria were found in O5 and O6. In conclusion, HFD feeding, before or after sexual maturation, reduces the functional capacity of rat Leydig cells. Maternal obesity associated with HFD during pregnancy/lactation prejudices Leydig cell steroidogenesis and induces its atrophy in adulthood, even if it is replaced by a conventional diet at later stages of life. Regardless of the life period of exposure to HFD, deregulation of leptin is the main factor related to steroidogenic impairment of Leydig cells, and, in groups exposed for longer periods (O3, O4, O5 and O6), this is worsened by structural damage and mitochondrial degeneration of these cells.
Tatiane Pereira Scarpelli, Eloisa Zanin Pytlowanciv, Maria Etelvina Pinto-Fochi, Sebastião Roberto Taboga, and Rejane Maira Góes
Maternal obesity plus high-fat diet in breastfeeding induces stromal hyperplasia and diffuse acinar atrophy in the rat prostate at aging, related to dyslipidemia and testosterone reduction. The high-lipid nutritional environment from intrauterine and throughout life favors the development of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and aggravated degenerative alterations in the gland.
Maternal obesity and high-fat diet (HFD) affect permanently prostate histophysiology in adulthood, but the consequences during aging are unknown. Here, we evaluated the prostate alterations in middle-aged rats subjected to a high-lipid nutritional environment (HLE) in different ontogenetic periods. Wistar rats (56 weeks of age) were assigned into groups exposed to standard nutrition (C) or HLE during gestation (G), gestation and lactation (GL), from lactation onward (L), from weaning onward (W) and from gestation onward (AL). HLE in the periods after weaning consisted of HFD (20% fat), and during gestation and lactation it also included previous maternal obesity induced by the HFD. HLE increased total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in all groups and led to insulin resistance in GL and AL and obesity in L. Serum testosterone levels decreased ~67% in GL, ~146% in L and W, and ~233% in AL. Histological and stereological analysis revealed an increment of the stromal compartment and collagen fibers in the prostates of all HLE groups, as well as degenerative lesions, such as cell vacuolation and prostate concretions. HLE aggravated acinar atrophy in G, GL, and L, and in AL it reached more than 50% of the prostate area for most animals. The foci of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia increased in AL. Tissue expression of androgen receptor did not vary among groups, except for a higher stromal expression for G and GL. Even when restricted to gestation and lactation, HLE induces diffuse acinar atrophy in the aging prostate and worsens degenerative and premalignant lesions when it continues throughout life.