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Elina V García, Meriem Hamdi, Antonio D Barrera, María J Sánchez-Calabuig, Alfonso Gutiérrez-Adán and Dimitrios Rizos

Signaling components of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are expressed in an anatomically and temporally regulated fashion in bovine oviduct. However, a local response of this signaling to the presence of the embryo has yet to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if early embryo-oviduct interaction induces changes in the gene expression of BMP signaling components. For this purpose, we used an in vitro co-culture system to investigate the local interaction between bovine oviductal epithelial cells (BOEC) from the isthmus region with early embryos during two developmental periods: before (from the 2-cell to 8-cell stage) or during (from the 8-cell to 16-cell stage) the main phase of embryonic genome activation (EGA). Exposure to embryos, irrespective of the period, significantly reduced the relative abundance of BMPR1B, BMPR2, SMAD1, SMAD6 and ID2 mRNAs in BOEC. In contrast, embryos that interacted with BOEC before EGA showed a significant increase in the relative abundance of SMAD1 mRNA at the 8-cell stage compared to embryos cultured without BOEC. Moreover, embryos at the 16-cell stage that interacted with BOEC during EGA showed a significant increase in BMPR1B, BMPR2 and ID2 mRNA. These results demonstrate that embryo-oviduct interaction in vitro induces specific changes in the transcriptional levels of BMP signaling, causing a bidirectional response that reduces the expression levels of this signaling in the oviductal cells while increases them in the early embryo. This suggests that BMP signaling pathway could be involved in an early cross talk between the bovine embryo and the oviduct during the first stages of development.

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Veronica Maillo, Maria Jesus Sánchez-Calabuig, Ricaurte Lopera-Vasquez, Meriem Hamdi, Alfonso Gutierrez-Adan, Patrick Lonergan and Dimitrios Rizos

The oviduct is a complex and organized thin tubular structure connecting the ovary with the uterus. It is the site of final sperm capacitation, oocyte fertilization and, in most species, the first 3–4days of early embryo development. The oviductal epithelium is made up of ciliary and secretory cells responsible for the secretion of proteins and other factors which contribute to the formation of the oviductal fluid. Despite significant research, most of the pathways and oviductal factors implicated in the crosstalk between gametes/early embryo and the oviduct remain unknown. Therefore, studying the oviductal environment is crucial to improve our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms controlling fertilization and embryo development. In vitro systems are a valuable tool to study in vivo pathways and mechanisms, particularly those in the oviducts which in livestock species are challenging to access. In studies of gamete and embryo interaction with the reproductive tract, oviductal epithelial cells, oviductal fluid and microvesicles co-cultured with gametes/embryos represent the most appropriate in vitro models to mimic the physiological conditions in vivo.

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Ricaurte Lopera-Vasquez, Meriem Hamdi, Veronica Maillo, Alfonso Gutierrez-Adan, Pablo Bermejo-Alvarez, Miguel Ángel Ramírez, María Yáñez-Mó and Dimitrios Rizos

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extracellular vesicles (EV) from oviductal fluid (OF), either from the ampulla or isthmus, on the development and quality of in vitro-cultured bovine embryos. Zygotes were cultured in synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF + 3 mg/mL BSA) without calf serum (C− group), in the presence of 3 × 105 EV/mL from ampullary or isthmic OF at either 1 × 104  g (10 K) or 1 × 105  g (100 K), and compared with SOF + 5% FCS (C+ group). OF-EV size and concentration were assessed by electron microscopy and nanotracking analysis system. Embryo development was recorded on Days 7–9, and blastocyst quality was assessed through cryotolerance and gene expression analysis. Lower blastocyst yield was observed on Day 7 in the C− and OF-EV groups (12.0–14.3%) compared with C+ (20.6%); however, these differences were compensated at Days 8 and 9 (Day 9: 28.5–30.8%). Importantly, the survival rate of blastocysts produced with isthmic 100 K OF-EV was higher than that of C+ and C− group at 72 h after vitrification and warming (80.1 vs 34.5 and 50.5% respectively, P < 0.05). In terms of gene expression, blastocysts produced in the presence of 100 K isthmic OF-EV upregulated the water channel AQP3 and DNMT3A and SNRPN transcripts compared with the C+, with the expression in C− being intermediate. The lipid receptor LDLR was downregulated in C+ compared with all other groups. In conclusion, the addition of oviductal fluid extracellular vesicles from isthmus, to in vitro culture of bovine embryos in the absence of serum improves the development and quality of the embryos produced.

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Meriem Hamdi, María J Sánchez-Calabuig, Beatriz Rodríguez-Alonso, Sandra Bagés Arnal, Kalliopi Roussi, Roger Sturmey, Alfonso Gutiérrez-Adán, Patrick Lonergan and Dimitrios Rizos

During its journey through the oviduct, the bovine embryo may induce transcriptomic and metabolic responses, via direct or indirect contact, from bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOECs). An in vitro model using polyester mesh was established, allowing the study of the local contact during 48 h between a BOEC monolayer and early embryos (2- or 8-cell stage) or their respective conditioned media (CM). The transcriptomic response of BOEC to early embryos was assessed by analyzing the transcript abundance of SMAD6, TDGF1, ROCK1, ROCK2, SOCS3, PRELP and AGR3 selected from previous in vivo studies and GPX4, NFE2L2, SCN9A, EPSTI1 and IGFBP3 selected from in vitro studies. Moreover, metabolic analyses were performed on the media obtained from the co-culture. Results revealed that presence of early embryos or their CM altered the BOEC expression of NFE2L2, GPX4, SMAD6, IGFBP3, ROCK2 and SCN9A. However, the response of BOEC to two-cell embryos or their CM was different from that observed to eight-cell embryos or their CM. Analysis of energy substrates and amino acids revealed that BOEC metabolism was not affected by the presence of early embryos or by their CM. Interestingly, embryo metabolism before embryo genome activation (EGA) seems to be independent of exogenous sources of energy. In conclusion, this study confirms that early embryos affect BOEC transcriptome and BOEC response was embryo stage specific. Moreover, embryo affects BOEC via a direct contact or via its secretions. However transcriptomic response of BOEC to the embryo did not manifest as an observable metabolic response.

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Antonio D Barrera, Elina V García, Meriem Hamdi, María J Sánchez-Calabuig, Ángela P López-Cardona, Noelia Fonseca Balvís, Dimitrios Rizos and Alfonso Gutiérrez-Adán

During the transit through the oviduct, the early embryo initiates an extensive DNA methylation reprogramming of its genome. Given that these epigenetic modifications are susceptible to environmental factors, components present in the oviductal milieu could affect the DNA methylation marks of the developing embryo. The aim of this study was to examine if culture of bovine embryos with oviductal fluid (OF) can induce DNA methylation changes at specific genomic regions in the resulting blastocysts. In vitro produced zygotes were cultured in medium with 3 mg/mL bovine serum albumin (BSA) or 1.25% OF added at the one- to 16-cell stage (OF1–16), one- to 8-cell stage (OF1–8) or 8- to 16-cell stage (OF8–16), and then were cultured until Day 8 in medium with 3 mg/mL BSA. Genomic regions in four developmentally important genes (MTERF2, ABCA7, OLFM1, GMDS) and within LINE-1 retrotransposons were selected for methylation analysis by bisulfite sequencing on Day 7–8 blastocysts. Blastocysts derived from OF1–16 group showed lower CpG methylation levels in MTERF2 and ABCA7 compared with the BSA group. However, CpG sites within MTERF2, ABCA7 and OLFM1 showed higher methylation levels in groups OF1–8 and OF8–16 than in OF1–16. For LINE-1 elements, higher CpG methylation levels were observed in blastocysts from the OF1–16 group than in the other experimental groups. In correlation with the methylation changes observed, mRNA expression level of MTERF2 was increased, while LINE-1 showed a decreased expression in blastocysts from OF1–16 group. Our results suggest that embryos show transient sensitivity to OF at early stages, which is reflected by specific methylation changes at the blastocyst stage.