Neonatal exposure to an immunological challenge (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) increases the activity of hypothalamo-pituitary–adrenal axis and sensitises the GNRH pulse generator to the inhibitory influence of stress in adult rats. We investigated the effects of neonatal exposure to LPS on various reproductive parameters during puberty and into adulthood in female rats. LPS (50 μg/kg, i.p.) or saline was administered on postnatal days 3 and 5. Vaginal opening was recorded, and oestrous cyclicity was monitored immediately post puberty and again at 8–9 weeks of age. At 10 weeks of age, the ovaries were removed and the number of follicles was counted, together with the thickness of the theca interna of the largest antral follicles. Ovarian sympathetic nerve activity was assessed immunohistochemically by measurement of the levels of ovarian low-affinity receptor of nerve growth factor (p75NGFR). In rats exposed to LPS in early life, there was a significant delay in puberty and disruption of oestrous cyclicity immediately post puberty, which persisted into adulthood. The follicle reserve was decreased, the thickness of the theca interna increased and the expression profile of ovarian p75NGFR increased in the neonatal LPS-treated animals. These data suggest that exposure to LPS during early neonatal life can have long-term dysfunctional effects on the female reproductive system, which might involve, at least in part, increased ovarian sympathetic nerve activity.
Xue-Qing Wu, Xiao-Feng Li, Bilu Ye, Neha Popat, Stuart R Milligan, Stafford L Lightman and Kevin T O'Byrne
Xiao Sun, Ye Chun Ruan, Jinghui Guo, Hui Chen, Lai Ling Tsang, Xiaohu Zhang, Xiaohua Jiang and Hsiao Chang Chan
In our previous study, we have demonstrated that the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) mediates the embryo-derived signals leading to the activation of CREB and upregulation of cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX2) required for embryo implantation. This study aims to investigate whether microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the ENaC-induced upregulation of COX2 during embryo implantation. The results show that the levels of miR-101 and miR-199a-3p, two COX2 targeting miRNAs, are reduced by ENaC activation, and increased by ENaC inhibition or knock-down of ENaC subunit (ENaCα) in human endometrial surface epithelial (HES) cells or in mouse uteri during implantation. Phosphorylation of CREB is induced by the activation of ENaC, and blocked by ENaC inhibition or knockdown in HES cells. Knockdown of ENaCα or CREB in HES cells or in mouse uterus in vivo results in increases in miR-101 and miR-199a-3p, accompanied with decreases in COX2 protein levels and reduction in implantation rate. The downregulation of COX2 caused by knockdown of ENaC or CREB can be recovered by the inhibitors of miR-101 or miR-199a-3p in HES cells. These results reveal a novel molecular mechanism modulating COX2 expression during embryo implantation via ENaC-dependent CREB activation and COX2-targeting miRNAs.
Fang Yang, Ye-Chun Ruan, Yun-jie Yang, Kai Wang, Shan-shan Liang, Yi-bin Han, Xiao-Ming Teng and Jian-Zhi Yang
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) undergoing IVF–embryo transfer based-assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment show variable ovarian responses to exogenous FSH administration. For better understanding and control of PCOS ovarian responses in ART, the present study was carried out to compare the follicular hormones and the expression of granulosa cell genes between PCOS and non-PCOS women during ART treatment as well as their IVF outcomes. Overall, 138 PCOS and 78 non-PCOS women were recruited for the present study. Follicular fluid collected from PCOS women showed high levels of testosterone. The expression of aromatase was found significantly reduced in luteinized granulosa cells from PCOS women. In cultured luteinized granulosa cells isolated from non-PCOS women, their exposure to testosterone at a level that was observed in PCOS follicles could decrease both mRNA and protein levels of aromatase in vitro. The inhibitory effect of testosterone was abolished by androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide. These results suggest that the hyperandrogenic follicular environment may be a key hazardous factor leading to the down-regulation of aromatase in PCOS.
Rui-Song Ye, Meng Li, Chao-Yun Li, Qi-En Qi, Ting Chen, Xiao Cheng, Song-Bo Wang, Gang Shu, Li-Na Wang, Xiao-Tong Zhu, Qing-Yan Jiang, Qian-Yun Xi and Yong-Liang Zhang
FSH plays an essential role in processes involved in human reproduction, including spermatogenesis and the ovarian cycle. While the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms underlying its synthesis and secretion have been extensively studied, little is known about its posttranscriptional regulation. A bioinformatics analysis from our group indicated that a microRNA (miRNA; miR-361-3p) could regulate FSH secretion by potentially targeting the FSHB subunit. Herein, we sought to confirm these findings by investigating the miR-361-3p-mediated regulation of FSH production in primary pig anterior pituitary cells. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) treatment resulted in an increase in FSHB synthesis at both the mRNA, protein/hormone level, along with a significant decrease in miR-361-3p and its precursor (pre-miR-361) levels in time- and dose-dependent manner. Using the Dual-Luciferase Assay, we confirmed that miR-361-3p directly targets FSHB. Additionally, overexpression of miR-361-3p using mimics significantly decreased the FSHB production at both the mRNA and protein levels, with a reduction in both protein synthesis and secretion. Conversely, both synthesis and secretion were significantly increased following miR-361-3p blockade. To confirm that miR-361-3p targets FSHB, we designed FSH-targeted siRNAs, and co-transfected anterior pituitary cells with both the siRNA and miR-361-3p inhibitors. Our results indicated that the siRNA blocked the miR-361-3p inhibitor-mediated upregulation of FSH, while no significant effect on non-target expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that miR-361-3p negatively regulates FSH synthesis and secretion by targeting FSHB, which provides more functional evidence that a miRNA is involved in the direct regulation of FSH.
Xue-Min Qiu, Zhen-Zhen Lai, Si-Yao Ha, Hui-Li Yang, Li-Bing Liu, Yan Wang, Jia-Wei Shi, Lu-Yu Ruan, Jiang-Feng Ye, Jiang-Nan Wu, Qiang Fu, Xiao-Fang Yi, Kai-Kai Chang and Ming-Qing Li
Immune cells and cytokines have important roles in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. However, the production and role of cytokines of T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cells in the progress of endometriosis have remained to be fully elucidated. The present study reported that the interferon (IFN)-γ levels and the percentage of IFN-γ+CD4+ cells were significantly increased in the peritoneal fluid (PF) at the early stage and maintained at a higher level at the advanced stage of endometriosis; furthermore, interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-10+CD4+ cells were elevated in the advanced stage of endometriosis. In addition, IL-2 levels in the PF at the advanced stage of endometriosis were elevated and negatively associated with IFN-γ expression. In a co-culture system of ectopic endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and macrophages, elevated IL-2 was observed, and treatment with cytokines IL-2 and transforming growth factor-β led to upregulation of the ratio of IL-2+ macrophages. IL-27-overexpressing ESCs and macrophages were able to induce a higher ratio of IL-10+CD4+ T cells. Blocking of IL-2 with anti-IL-2 neutralizing antibody led to upregulation of the ratio of IFN-γ+CD4+ T cells in the co-culture system in vitro. Recombinant human IL-10 and IFN-γ promoted the viability, invasiveness and transcription levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2, MMP9, and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 of ESCs, particularly combined treatment with IL-10 and IFN-γ. These results suggest that IL-2 and IL-27 synergistically promote the growth and invasion of ESCs by modulating the balance of IFN-γ and IL-10 and contribute to the progress of endometriosis.
Xue-Ying Zhang, Yi-Meng Xiong, Ya-Jing Tan, Li Wang, Rong Li, Yong Zhang, Xin-Mei Liu, Xian-Hua Lin, Li Jin, Yu-Ting Hu, Zhen-Hua Tang, Zheng-Mu Wu, Feng-Hua Yin, Zheng-Quan Wang, Ye Xiao, Jian-Zhong Sheng and He-Feng Huang
Fertilization failure often occurs during in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles despite apparently normal sperm and oocytes. Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondria play crucial roles in the regulation of sperm function and male fertility. 3-Nitrophthalic acid (3-NPA) can induce oxidative stress in mitochondria, and melatonin, as an antioxidant, can improve mitochondrial function by reducing mitochondrial oxidative stress. The role of sperm mitochondrial dysfunction in fertilization failure during IVF is unclear. The present study revealed that spermatozoa with low, or poor, fertilization rates had swollen mitochondria, increased mitochondria-derived ROS, and attenuated mitochondrial respiratory capacity. 3-NPA treatment enhanced mitochondrial dysfunction in sperm. Spermatozoa with poor fertilization rates, and spermatozoa treated with 3-NPA, had reduced penetration ability. The concentration of melatonin was decreased in semen samples with low and poor fertilization rates. Melatonin, not only decreased excessive mitochondria-derived ROS, but also ‘rescued’ the reduced penetration capacity of spermatozoa treated with 3-NPA. Taken together, the study suggested that mitochondria-derived ROS and mitochondrial respiratory capacity are independent bio-markers for sperm dysfunction, and melatonin may be useful in improving sperm quality and overall male fertility.