Endometrial cells and microenvironment are two important factors in the pathogenesis of adenomyosis. Our previous study demonstrated that macrophages can induce eutopic epithelial cells of adenomyosis to suffer from epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). The aim of this study is to detect whether macrophages interacting with epithelial cells equally induce the EMT process in normal and eutopic endometria of healthy and adenomyotic patients; and whether macrophages parallelly polarize to M2. We investigated the expression levels of epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin), neural cadherin (N-cadherin), cytokeratin7 (CK7), vimentin, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFB1), SMAD3 and pSMAD3 using immunohistochemistry and western blot, and then estimated the genetic levels of CD163, IL10 and MMP12 using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in macrophages. Eutopic and normal endometrial tissues were obtained from 20 patients with adenomyosis and 11 control patients without adenomyosis, respectively. The immunohistochemical analysis shows distinct EMT in eutopic endometria in secretory phase; the expression levels of TGFB1, SMAD3 and pSMAD3 that indicate signal pathway of EMT were also higher in secretory phase. Macrophages can induce EMT process in primary endometrial epithelial cells derived from normal and eutopic endometria. After co-culturing, THP-1-derived macrophages polarized to M2. Compared with the eutopic endometrium group, further polarization to M2 was observed in the normal endometrium group. These results indicate that adenomyosis may be promoted by the pathologic EMT of epithelial cells, which is induced by macrophages that incapably polarize to M2.
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Min An, Dong Li, Ming Yuan, Qiuju Li, Lu Zhang, and Guoyun Wang
Jing Xue, Hui Zhang, Wei Liu, Ming Liu, Min Shi, Zeqing Wen, and Changzhong Li
Adenomyosis is a finding that is associated with dysmenorrhea and heavy menstrual bleeding, associated with PI3K/AKT signaling overactivity. To investigate the effect of metformin on the growth of eutopic endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) from patients with adenomyosis and to explore the involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and PI3K/AKT pathways. Primary cultures of human ESCs were derived from normal endometrium (normal endometrial stromal cells (N-ESCs)) and adenomyotic eutopic endometrium (adenomyotic endometrial stroma cells (A-ESCs)). Expression of AMPK was determined using immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis. 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays were used to determine the effects of metformin and compound C on ESCs and also to detect growth and proliferation of ESCs. AMPK and PI3K/AKT signaling was determined by western blotting. A-ECSs exhibited greater AMPK expression than N-ESCs. Metformin inhibited proliferation of ESCs in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 was 2.45 mmol/l for A-ESCs and 7.87 mmol/l for N-ESCs. Metformin increased AMPK activation levels (p-AMPK/AMPK) by 2.0±0.3-fold in A-ESCs, 2.3-fold in A-ESCs from the secretory phase, and 1.6-fold in the proliferation phase. The average reduction ratio of 17β-estradiol on A-ESCs was 2.1±0.8-fold in proliferative phase and 2.5±0.5-fold in secretory phase relative to the equivalent groups not treated with 17β-estradiol. The inhibitory effects of metformin on AKT activation (p-AKT/AKT) were more pronounced in A-ESCs from the secretory phase (3.2-fold inhibition vs control) than in those from the proliferation phase (2.3-fold inhibition vs control). Compound C, a selective AMPK inhibitor, abolished the effects of metformin on cell growth and PI3K/AKT signaling. Metformin inhibits cell growth via AMPK activation and subsequent inhibition of PI3K/AKT signaling in A-ESCs, particularly during the secretory phase, suggesting a greater effect of metformin on A-ESCs from secretory phase.
Jingbo Dai, Wangjie Xu, Xianglong Zhao, Meixing Zhang, Dong Zhang, Dongsheng Nie, Min Bao, Zhaoxia Wang, Lianyun Wang, and Zhongdong Qiao
Many studies have revealed the hazardous effects of cigarette smoking and nicotine exposure on male fertility, but the actual, underlying molecular mechanism remains relatively unclear. To evaluate the detrimental effects of nicotine exposure on the sperm maturation process, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analyses were performed to screen and identify differentially expressed proteins from the epididymal tissue of mice exposed to nicotine. Data mining analysis indicated that 15 identified proteins were mainly involved in the molecular transportation process and the polyol pathway, indicating impaired epididymal secretory functions. Experiments in vitro confirmed that nicotine inhibited tyrosine phosphorylation levels in capacitated spermatozoa via the downregulated seminal fructose concentration. Sord, a key gene encoding sorbitol dehydrogenase, was further investigated to reveal that nicotine induced hyper-methylation of the promoter region of this gene. Nicotine-induced reduced expression of Sord could be involved in impaired secretory functions of the epididymis and thus prevent the sperm from undergoing proper maturation and capacitation, although further experiments are needed to confirm this hypothesis.
Guo-Min Zhang, Ming-Tian Deng, Zhi-Hai Lei, Yong-Jie Wan, Hai-Tao Nie, Zi-Yu Wang, Yi-Xuan Fan, Feng Wang, and Yan-Li Zhang
During goat follicular development, abnormal expression of nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) in granulosa cells may drive follicular atresia with unknown regulatory mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the effects of NRF1 on steroidogenesis and cell apoptosis by overexpressing or silencing it in goat luteinized granulosa cells (LGCs). Results showed that knockdown of NRF1 expression significantly inhibited the expression of STAR and CYP19A1, which are involved in sex steroid hormones synthesis, and led to lower estrogen levels. Knockdown of NRF1 resulted in an increased percentage of apoptosis, probably due to the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, accompanied by upregulating mRNA and protein levels of apoptosis-related markers BAX, caspase 3 and caspase 9. These data indicate that NRF1 might be related with steroidogenesis and cell apoptosis. Furthermore, NRF1 silence reduced mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) transcription activity, mtDNA copy number and ATP level. Simultaneously, knockdown of NRF1 suppressed the transcription and translation levels of SOD, GPx and CAT, decreased glutathione level and increased 8-OHdG level. However, the overexpression of NRF1 in LGCs or gain of TFAM in NRF1 silenced LGCs increased the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial function and biogenesis, and elevated the antioxidant stress system and steroids synthesis. Taken together, aberrant expression of NRF1 could induce mitochondrial dysfunction and disturb the cellular redox balance, which lead to disturbance of steroid hormone synthesis, and trigger LGC apoptosis through the mitochondria-dependent pathway. These findings will be helpful for understanding the role of NRF1 in goat ovarian follicular development and atresia.
Xiaoyan Huang, Jun Zhang, Li Lu, Lanlan Yin, Min Xu, Youqun Wang, Zuomin Zhou, and Jiahao Sha
Identification of genes specifically expressed in adult and fetal testis is important in furthering our understanding of testis development and function. In this study, a novel human transcript, designated human testis cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (htCREB), was identified by hybridization of adult and fetal human testis cDNA probes with a human cDNA microarray containing 9216 clones. The htCREB transcript (GenBank Accession no. AY347527) was expressed at 2.35-fold higher levels in adult human testes than in fetal testes. Sequence and ntBLAST analyses against the human genome database indicated that htCREB was a novel splice variant of human CREB. RT-PCR-based tissue distribution experiments demonstrated that the htCREB transcript was highly expressed in adult human testis and in healthy sperm, but not in testes from patients with Sertoli cell-only syndrome. Taken together, these results suggest that the htCREB transcript is chiefly expressed in germ cells and is most likely involved in spermatogenesis.
Qian Li, Li Yang, Feng Zhang, Jiaxi Liu, Min Jiang, Yannan Chen, and Chenchen Ren
Inflammation and abnormal immune response are the key processes in the development of endometriosis (EMs), and m6A modification can regulate the inflammatory response. This study reveals that METTL3-mediated N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification plays an important role in EMs.
m6A modification is largely involved in the development of different diseases. This study intended to investigate the implication of m6A methylation transferase methyltransferase like 3 (METTL3) in EMs. EMs- and m6A-related mRNAs and long non-coding RNAs were identified through bioinformatics analysis. Next, EM mouse models established by endometrial autotransplantation and mouse endometrial stromal cell (mESC) were prepared and treated with oe-METTL3 or sh-MIR17HG for pinpointing the in vitro and in vivo effects of METTL3 on EMs in relation to MIR17HG through the determination of mESC biological processes as well as estradiol (E2) and related lipoprotein levels. We demonstrated that METTL3 and MIR17HG were downregulated in the EMs mouse model. Overexpression of METTL3 suppressed the proliferation, migration, and invasion of mESCs. In addition, METTL3 enhanced the expression of MIR17HG through m6A modification. Moreover, METTL3 could inhibit the E2 level and alter related lipoprotein levels in EMs mice through the upregulation of MIR17HG. The present study highlighted that the m6A methylation transferase METTL3 prevents EMs progression by upregulating MIR17HG expression.
Liu Shi-fan, Wang Zhong-xing, Yuan Yao-e, Bing Sheng-min, Zhang Bei-zhu, Wu Jin-zhi, Wu Yi-e, and Peng Xin-ying
Summary. The concentrations of LH, FSH, prolactin, oestradiol and progesterone in serum were measured daily during the menstrual cycle of 100 normal Chinese women. The cyclic changes in LH, FSH, oestradiol and progesterone were typical of ovulatory cycles in women of other ethnic groups as reported in the literature. The geometric mean of the LH midcycle peak value was 51·64 i.u./l, the FSH mid-cycle peak value was 11 ·52 i.u./l, the preovulatory oestradiol peak was 1229·12 pmol/1, and the progesterone luteal maximum was 53·27 nmol/1. The cyclic changes of prolactin concentrations were irregular: the value at mid-cycle was significantly higher than that at the follicular or luteal phases.
A correlation between the length of the cycle and mean concentrations of LH and oestradiol at different stages throughout the cycle was shown.
Zhi-hui Cui, Yong-dan Ma, Yi-cheng Wang, Huan Liu, Jia-wei Song, Li-xue Zhang, Wen-jing Guo, Xue-qin Zhang, Sha-sha Tu, Dong-zhi Yuan, Jin-hu Zhang, Li Nie, and Li-min Yue
Impaired spermatogenesis resulting from disturbed cholesterol metabolism due to intake of high-fat diet (HFD) has been widely recognized, however, the role of preprotein invertase subtilin 9 (PCSK9), which is a negative regulator of cholesterol metabolism, has never been reported. This study aims to reveal the role of PCSK9 on spermatogenesis induced by HFD in mice.
Long-term consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) is an important factor that leads to impaired spermatogenesis exhibiting poor sperm quantity and quality. However, the mechanism of this is yet to be elucidated. Disrupted cholesterol homeostasis is one of many crucial pathological factors which could contribute to impaired spermatogenesis. As a negative regulator of cholesterol metabolism, preprotein invertase subtilin 9 (PCSK9) mediates low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) degradation to the lysosome, thereby reducing the expression of LDLR on the cell membrane and increasing serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, resulting in lipid metabolism disorders. Here, we aim to study whether PCSK9 is a pathological factor for impaired spermatogenesis induced by HFD and the underlying mechanism. To meet the purpose of our study, we utilized wild-type C57BL/6 male mice and PCSK9 knockout mice with same background as experimental subjects and alirocumab, a PCSK9 inhibitor, was used for treatment. Results indicated that HFD induced higher PCSK9 expression in serum, liver, and testes, and serum PCSK9 is negatively correlated with spermatogenesis, while both PCSK9 inhibitor treatment and PCSK9 knockout methodologies ameliorated impaired lipid metabolism and spermatogenesis in mice fed a HFD. This could be due to the overexpression of PCSK9 induced by HFD leading to dyslipidemia, resulting in testicular lipotoxicity, thus activating the Bcl-2–Bax–Caspase3 apoptosis signaling pathway in testes, particularly in Leydig cells. Our study demonstrates that PCSK9 is an important pathological factor in the dysfunction of spermatogenesis in mice induced by HFD. This finding could provide innovative ideas for the diagnosis and treatment of male infertility.
Wen-jing Guo, Yi-cheng Wang, Yong-dan Ma, Zhi-hui Cui, Li-xue Zhang, Li Nie, Xue-qin Zhang, Mei-jiao Wang, Jin-hu Zhang, Dong-zhi Yuan, and Li-min Yue
The incidence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) due to high-fat diet (HFD) consumption has been increasing significantly. However, the mechanism by which a HFD contributes to the pathogenesis of PCOS has not been elucidated. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a key protein that regulates cholesterol metabolism. Our previous study revealed abnormally high PCSK9 levels in serum from patients with PCOS and in serum and hepatic and ovarian tissues from PCOS model mice, suggesting that PCSK9 is involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS. However, the factor that induces high PCSK9 expression in PCOS remains unclear. In this study, Pcsk9 knockout mice were used to further explore the role of PCSK9 in PCOS. We also studied the effects of a HFD on the expression of PCSK9 and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2), a regulator of cholesterol homeostasis and a key transcription factor that regulates the expression of PCSK9, and the roles of these proteins in PCOS pathology. Our results indicated HFD may play an important role by inducing abnormally high PCSK9 expression via SREBP2 upregulation. We further investigated the effects of an effective SREBP inhibitor, fatostain, and found that it could reduce HFD-induced PCSK9 expression, ameliorate hyperlipidemia and improve follicular development in PCOS model mice. Our study thus further elucidates the important role of an HFD in the pathogenesis of PCOS and provides a new clue in the prevention and treatment of this disorder.
Qingfeng Liu, Junmei Liu, Liujiao Yuan, Lu Li, Min Tao, Chun Zhang, Qinbo Qin, Bo Chen, Ming Ma, Chenchen Tang, and Shaojun Liu
Distant hybridization refers to the cross between two different species or higher-ranking taxa. It is very significant if the new lineages with genetic variation, fertile ability, and improved characteristics can be established through distant hybridization. However, reproductive barriers are key limitations that must be overcome to establish fertile lineages derived from distant hybridization. In the present review, we discussed how distant hybridization is an important way to form new species by overcoming reproductive barriers and summarized effective measures to overcome reproductive barriers in order to create fertile lineages of fish distant hybridization. In addition, we described the utilization of the fish lineages derived from distant hybridization. Finally, we discussed the relationship between distant hybridization and Mendel’s laws, which generally apply to the inbred hybridization. We aim to provide a comprehensive reference for the establishment of fertile fish lineages by overcoming reproductive barriers and to emphasize the significance of fish distant hybridization in the fields of evolutionary biology, reproductive biology, and genetic breeding.