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  • Author: A L Fletcher x
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L. A. Hinds, C. H. Tyndale-Biscoe, G. Shaw, T. P. Fletcher and M. B. Renfree

Summary. In Exp. 1 non-pregnant female tammars were injected, on Day 26 (the day parturition would normally occur) after removal of pouch young, with saline, 200 μ ovine prolactin or 5 mg PG and changes in plasma concentrations of progesterone, prolactin, PGF-2α metabolite (PGFM), oestradiol-17β and LH were determined. Luteolysis occurred in females treated with prolactin alone, while treatment with PG first induced a rapid rise in prolactin and subsequently a significant decrease in plasma progesterone. After prolactin treatment the oestradiol peak, oestrus and the LH surge were advanced significantly compared to the saline-treated females.

In Exp. 2 the effects of the same treatments as used in Exp. 1 were determined on Day 23 and again on Day 26 after removal of pouch young in non-pregnant females. On Day 23 both prolactin and PG induced significant elevations in plasma progesterone, but luteolysis did not occur. On Day 26 the treatments initially induced significant elevations in plasma progesterone but these were followed by luteolysis within 8–12 h after treatment. PG treatment induced parturient behaviour in the non-pregnant females within 3–21 min and this persisted during the period that plasma concentrations of PGFM were elevated.

The results show that PG induces birth behaviour and the release of prolactin, while prolactin first induces an elevation of plasma progesterone concentrations and, in the mature CL on Day 26, subsequently induces luteolysis.

Keywords: progesterone; prolactin; LH; oestradiol; PG; tammar

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J A Tamblyn, L E Jeffery, R Susarla, D M Lissauer, S L Coort, A Muñoz Garcia, K Knoblich, A L Fletcher, J N Bulmer, M D Kilby and M Hewison

Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in pregnant women and is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, in particular disorders of malplacentation. The active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), is a potent regulator of innate and adaptive immunity, but its immune effects during pregnancy remain poorly understood. During early gestation, the predominant immune cells in maternal decidua are uterine natural killer cells (uNK), but the responsivity of these cells to 1,25(OH)2D3 is unknown despite high levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 in decidua. Transcriptomic responses to 1,25(OH)2D3 were characterised in paired donor uNK and peripheral natural killer cells (pNK) following cytokine (CK) stimulation. RNA-seq analyses indicated 911 genes were differentially expressed in CK-stimulated uNK versus CK-stimulated pNK in the absence of 1,25(OH)2D3, with predominant differentially expressed pathways being associated with glycolysis and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ). RNA-seq also showed that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and its heterodimer partner retinoid X receptor were differentially expressed in CK-stimulated uNK vs CK-stimulated pNK. Further analyses confirmed increased expression of VDR mRNA and protein, as well as VDR-RXR target in CK-stimulated uNK. RNA-seq analysis showed that in CK-stimulated pNK, 1,25(OH)2D3 induced 38 and suppressed 33 transcripts, whilst in CK-stimulated uNK 1,25(OH)2D3 induced 46 and suppressed 19 genes. However, multiple comparison analysis of transcriptomic data indicated that 1,25(OH)2D3 had no significant overall effect on gene expression in either CK-stimulated pNK or uNK. These data indicate that CK-stimulated uNK are transcriptionally distinct from pNK and, despite expressing abundant VDR, neither pNK nor uNK are sensitive targets for vitamin D.