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A. M. PHADKE and G. M. PHADKE

Summary.

In certain cases of male infertility, there are present in the semen, certain mononuclear and multinuclear cells which exhibit phagocytic activity. These spermiophage cells are witnessed in large numbers in the epididymal juice in cases of obstructive azoospermia. Serial sections of epididymis in such cases demonstrate intraluminal sperm phagocytosis by macrophage cells. The site of origin of these spermiophage cells is uncertain.

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A. M. PHADKE

Summary.

The epididymal secretions in cases of obstructive azoospermia, where the site of obstruction was distal to the body of the epididymis, were studied by means of new staining techniques for the detection of spermiophage cells. The spermiophage cells were rich in lipoid material which resembled the pigment lipofuscin. Results of such staining demonstrated that phagocytosis was the chief mechanism involved in the disposal of dead spermatozoa in the majority of such cases. Study of epididymal biopsies in these cases demonstrated that the sperm phagocytosis was chiefly intraluminal and the occurrence of extravasation of spermatozoa in the interstitial tissues of the epididymis was a rare phenomenon. Evidence is presented to show that the spermiophage cells are derived from the basal layer of cells lining the epididymal tubules and in some instances the columnar epithelial lining of the epididymal tubules manifested phagocytic properties. The possible significance of this finding, and its role in the development of auto-antibodies against spermatozoa in the host, is discussed.

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A. M. PHADKE and K. PADUKONE

Summary.

Blood samples from fifty azoospermic men with proved obstruction in the vas deferens were tested for the presence of sperm agglutinins. Autoantibodies against spermatozoa were detected in thirteen of them. Another group of twenty-five cases of obstructive azoospermia in whom the obstruction was relieved successfully by vaso-epididymostomy was also investigated. In six instances sperm agglutinins persisted in the blood for years after the obstruction was relieved and three of these individuals demonstrated normal fertility. Two techniques for the detection of autoantibodies were used, namely (1) microscopic technique and (2) modified macroscopic technique of Kibrick, Belding & Merril (1952). The probable mechanism responsible for the production of sperm agglutinins is discussed. It is concluded that the presence of sperm agglutinins in the blood serum does not interfere with the fertility of the individual.

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A. M. PHADKE, K. TILAK and K. PADUKONE

Summary.

Recently, Sevag & Colton (1959) published a chemical test for detecting the precise day of ovulation. We have performed this test in 112 menstrual cycles of sixty women. Out of 112 menstrual cycles studied, in fifty-six menstrual cycles (50%) the chemical patterns were atypical. We do not substantiate the claim of Sevag & Colton that the ovulation invariably occurs between 10th and 14th days of menstrual cycle. This test needs further confirmation from other tests such as endometrial biopsy carried out simultaneously.