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ANDRZEJ BARTKE

Summary.

Genetically dwarf female mice are sterile but reproduction and lactation can be induced with prolactin-producing heterotopic pituitary homografts. To test if prolactin deficiency is the sole cause of the sterility, female dwarf mice were treated with purified prolactin.

Dwarf (dwdw) and Ames dwarf (dfdf) mice in which the vaginae opened spontaneously were mated to non-dwarf males and injected with sheep prolactin starting on the day of plug formation. Pregnancy, delivery and lactation were obtained in both kinds of dwarf mouse indicating that, in the stocks used, the addition of prolactin alone is sufficient for reproduction.

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ANDRZEJ BARTKE

Summary.

Two types of dwarf mutants of the mouse were used: dwarf (dw), and Ames dwarf (df). Dwarf mice are sterile but males produce living spermatozoa and females undergo oestrous cycles. Failure to become pregnant or pseudopregnant after mating and lack of acidophilic cells in the hypophysis suggest lack of luteotrophin (LtH).

A constant supply of LtH was provided by grafting the hypophyses from normal mice into the renal capsules of dwarfs. Of thirty-eight female recipients of grafts, eighteen produced living young. All except three lactated and raised their litters to weaning. Most remained fertile for several months and produced two to seven litters. It is concluded that lack of LtH may be the sole cause for sterility of female dwarf mice. Of seven male dwarf mice that received hypophysial grafts six became fertile. The role of LtH in promoting male fertility is not clear as dwarf males become fertile after receiving growth hormone or thyroxine and, occasionally, without any treatment.

To determine if spermatozoa from untreated dwarf males are able to fertilize ova, artificial inseminations were performed. From forty-four normal females inseminated with spermatozoa of dwarfs, six became pregnant.

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ANDRZEJ BARTKE

Summary.

Decidual cell reaction (DCR) of the endometrium to mechanical trauma applied on the 4th day of pseudopregnancy was compared in two inbred strains KE and KP, F1 hybrids and outbred mice. There was no difference between hybrid and outbred females. Mice from the KE strain had stronger reaction than F1 or outbred animals, while KP females, which have low fertility, had significantly smaller DCR. Uterine sensitivity to trauma on the 3rd, 4th or 5th day of pseudopregnancy was compared in KE and KP females. It was concluded that the relatively low and prolonged sensitivity of the uterus to mechanical stimuli in the KP strain may indicate an oestrogen deficiency.

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ANDRZEJ BARTKE

Summary.

In mice of four genetically different strains, a silk suture was placed in one of the uterine horns while the remaining horn was left untreated. When the females were mated, no evidence of implantation was found in the threaded horn. In the contralateral horn, implantation occurred in only about 50% of the mice and embryonic mortality was increased. In some females the uterine horns were scratched 3 days after sterile mating to evoke a decidual reaction. Deciduomata were inhibited completely in the threaded horn, and partially in the control horn. The four strains differed both in the proportion of females with implantations in the control horn and in the degree of decidual growth inhibition. The effects of an IUD on implantation and on decidual reaction were correlated. When an IUD was removed after plug formation, but before the blastocysts entered the uterus, implantation occurred in both horns in about 40% of the females. These results suggest that an IUD in mice may exert its effect on fertility by impairing the uterine sensitivity to mechanical stimuli at the time of implantation and that the extent of this action is genetically determined.