The ovarian reserve of primordial follicle oocytes is formed during in utero development and represents the entire supply of oocytes available to sustain female fertility. Maternal undernutrition during pregnancy and lactation diminishes offspring ovarian reserve in rats. In mice, maternal oocyte maturation is also susceptible to undernutrition, causing impaired offspring cardiovascular function. We aimed to determine whether programming of the ovarian reserve is impacted in offspring when maternal undernutrition extends from preconception oocyte development through to weaning. C57BL6/J female mice were fed normal protein (20%) or low-protein (8%) diet during preconception, pregnancy and lactation periods. Maternal ovaries were harvested at weaning and offspring ovaries were collected at postnatal day (PN)21 and 24 weeks of age. Total follicle estimates were obtained by histologically sampling one ovary per animal (n = 5/group). There was no impact of diet on maternal follicle numbers. However, in offspring, maternal protein restriction significantly depleted primordial follicles by 37% at PN21 and 51% at 24 weeks (P < 0.05). There were no effects of diet on other follicle classes. Histological analysis showed no differences in the proportion of proliferative follicles (pH3 positive), but increased atresia (cleaved caspase-3-positive, or TUNEL-positive) was detected in ovaries of protein-restricted offspring at both ages (P < 0.05). Our data show that maternal diet during the preconception period, in utero development and early life has significant impacts on follicle endowment and markers of follicle health later in life. This highlights the need for further investigation into the importance of maternal preconception diet for offspring reproductive development and health.
Amy L Winship, Sarah E Gazzard, Luise A Cullen-McEwen, John F Bertram, and Karla J Hutt
Saranya Giridharan, Karla J Hutt, and Amy L Winship
Human genome-wide association studies and evidence from animal models link ovarian ageing to double-strand (ds)DNA break repair capacity. Is there a connection between single-strand (ss)DNA repair mechanisms and ovarian function? We hypothesize that endogenous cellular processes subject oocytes to ssDNA lesions, and thus, ssDNA repair capacity is fundamental to their survival and maintenance.