In order to clarify the physiological role of ghrelin in gestation, we evaluated the effects of administration of exogenous ghrelin (2 or 4 nmol/animal per day) or its antagonist (6 nmol/animal per day of (d-Lys3)GHRP6) on fertilization, early embryo development, and implantation periods in mice. Three experiments were performed, treating female mice with ghrelin or its antagonist: i) starting from 1 week before copulation to 12 h after copulation, mice were killed at day 18 of gestation; ii) since ovulation induction until 80 h later, when we retrieved the embryos from oviducts/uterus, and iii) starting from days 3 to 7 of gestation (peri-implantation), mice were killed at day 18. In experiments 1 and 3, the antagonist and/or the highest dose of ghrelin significantly increased the percentage of atrophied fetuses and that of females exhibiting this finding or a higher amount of corpora lutea compared with fetuses (nCL/nF) (experiment 3: higher nCL/nF-atrophied fetuses: ghrelin 4, 71.4–71.4% and antagonist, 75.0–62.5% vs ghrelin 2, 46.2−15.4% and control, 10–0.0%; n=7–13 females/group; P<0.01). In experiment 2, the antagonist diminished the fertilization rate, and both, ghrelin and the antagonist, delayed embryo development (blastocysts: ghrelin 2, 62.5%; ghrelin 4, 50.6%; and antagonist, 61.0% vs control 78.4%; n=82–102 embryos/treatment; P<0.0001). In experiment 3, additionally, ghrelin (4 nmol/day) and the antagonist significantly diminished the weight gain of fetuses and dams during pregnancy. Our results indicate that not only hyperghrelinemia but also the inhibition of the endogenous ghrelin effects exerts negative effects on the fertilization, implantation, and embryo/fetal development periods, supporting the hypothesis that ghrelin (in ‘adequate’ concentrations) has a physiological role in early gestational events.
Eugenia Mercedes Luque, Pedro Javier Torres, Nicolás de Loredo, Laura María Vincenti, Graciela Stutz, María Emilia Santillán, Rubén Daniel Ruiz, Marta Fiol de Cuneo, and Ana Carolina Martini
Mariana R Batista, Patrícia Diniz, Daniel Murta, Ana Torres, Luís Lopes-da-Costa, and Elisabete Silva
This study investigated the role of Notch and Wnt cell signaling interplay in the mouse early embryo, and its effects on fetal development. Developmental kinetics was evaluated in embryos in vitro cultured from the 8-16-cell to the hatched blastocyst stage in the presence of signaling inhibitors of Notch (DAPT) and/or Wnt (DKK1). An embryo subset was evaluated for differential cell count and gene transcription of Notch (receptors Notch1-4, ligands Dll1, Dll4, Jagged1-2, effectors Hes1-2) and Wnt (Wnt3a, Lrp6, Gsk3β, C-myc, Tcf4, β-catenin) components, E-cadherin and pluripotency and differentiation markers (Sox2, Oct4, Klf4, Cdx2), whereas a second subset was evaluated for implantation ability and development to term following transfer into recipients. Notch and Wnt blockades had significant opposing effects on developmental kinetics – Notch blockade retarded while Wnt blockade fastened development. This evidences that Notch and Wnt regulate the pace of embryo kinetics by respectively speeding and braking development. Blockades significantly changed the transcription profile of Sox2, Oct4, Klf4 and Cdx2, and Notch and double blockades significantly changed embryonic cell numbers and cell ratio. The double blockade induced more severe phenotypes than those expected from the cumulative effects of single blockades. Implantation ability was unaffected, but Notch and double blockades significantly decreased fetal development to term. Compared to control embryos, Notch blockade and Wnt blockade embryos originated, respectively, significantly lighter and heavier fetuses. In conclusion, Notch and Wnt signaling interplay in the regulation of the pace of early embryo kinetics, and their actions at this stage have significant carry-over effects on later fetal development to term.