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Axel P N Themmen

New information about mutations and polymorphisms in the genes for the gonadotrophins and their receptors has become available in the last few years. In this short review mutations and polymorphisms in gonadotrophins, their receptors and their pathophysiological effects and implications are discussed. An increasingly clear picture about the structure–function relationships of gonadotrophin action is emerging from the combining the types and the locations of the mutations with their phenotypic effects and the information about the crystal structure of these molecules.

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Jenny A Visser, Frank H de Jong, Joop S E Laven, and Axel P N Themmen

Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a member of the transforming growth factor β family of growth and differentiation factors. In the ovary, AMH has an inhibitory effect on primordial follicle recruitment as well as on the responsiveness of growing follicles to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). The ovary-specific expression pattern in granulosa cells of growing nonselected follicles makes AMH an ideal marker for the size of the ovarian follicle pool. This review summarizes recent findings concerning AMH and its role as a marker for the quantitative aspect of ovarian reserve as well as ovarian dysfunction.