Semen induces post-coital inflammation of the endometrium in several species. Post-coital inflammation is proposed to alter the endometrial environment of early pregnancy, mediate embryonic development and modulate the maternal immune response to pregnancy. In cattle, it is common for pregnancies to occur in the absence of whole semen due to the high utilization of artificial insemination. Here, we have utilized a cell culture system to characterize semen-induced expression of inflammatory mediators in bovine endometrial cells and test the efficacy of transforming growth factor beta as the active agent in mediating any such change. We hypothesize that seminal plasma-derived transforming growth factor beta increases the expression of inflammatory mediators in bovine endometrial cells. Initially, we describe a heat-labile cytotoxic effect of seminal plasma on BEND cells, and a moderate increase in IL1B and IL6 expression. In addition, we show that transforming growth factor beta is present in bovine semen and can increase the expression of endometrial IL6, whereas blocking transforming growth factor beta in semen ameliorates this effect. However, intra-uterine infusion of seminal plasma, sperm or transforming growth factor beta did not alter the endometrial expression of inflammatory mediators. We conclude that bovine semen can modulate endometrial gene expression in vitro, which is partially due to the presence of transforming growth factor beta. It is likely that additional, unidentified, bioactive molecules in semen can alter the endometrial environment. Characterizing bioactive molecules in bovine semen may lead to the development of additives to improve artificial insemination in domestic species.