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V. Puri, G. F. X. David, A. K. Dubey, C. P. Puri, and T. C. Anand Kumar

Summary. Intranasal administration of norethisterone at a daily dose of 9 μg between Days 5 and 14 of the menstrual cycles blocked ovulation in 10 out of 17 adult female monkeys. Serum concentrations of hormones indicated that ovulation was blocked due to a suppression of the mid-cycle, oestradiol-induced LH surge. Ovarian follicular activity in the treated menstrual cycles was not affected by norethisterone but there was a marked delay in the onset of the mid-cycle oestradiol surge in most of the treated animals. The duration of the menstrual cycle length after the oestradiol peak was significantly reduced in all the treated monkeys, indicative of a shortened luteal phase.

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G B Godbole, D N Modi, and C P Puri

Homeobox A10 (HOXA10), a member of abdominal B subclass of homeobox genes, is responsible for uterine homeosis during development. Intriguingly, in the adult murine uterus, HOXA10 has been demonstrated to play important roles in receptivity, embryo implantation, and decidualization. However, the roles of HOXA10 in the primate endometrium are not known. To gain insights into the roles of HOXA10 in the primate endometrium, its expression was studied in the endometria of bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata) in the receptive phase and also in the endometria of monkeys treated with antiprogestin onapristone (ZK98.299) or in conception cycle where the presence of preimplantation stage blastocyst was verified. In addition, the mRNA expression of HOXA11 and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) was evaluated by real-time PCR in these animals.The results revealed that HOXA10 in the luteal phase primate endometrium is differentially expressed in the functionalis and the basalis zones, which is modulated in vivo by progesterone and also by the signals from the incoming embryo suggesting the involvement of HOXA10 in the process of establishment of pregnancy in primates. In addition, the results also demonstrated that the expression of IGFBP1 but not HOXA11 is coregulated with HOXA10 in the endometria of these animals. The pattern of changes in the expression of HOXA10 in response to the two stimuli suggests that endometrial receptivity and implantation not only requires a synchrony of maternal and embryonic signaling on endometrial cells in the primates but there also exists a controlled differential response among the cells of various uterine compartments.

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N. K. Lohiya, R. S. Sharma, C. P. Puri, G. F. X. David, and T. C. Anand Kumar

Summary. In 5 caged langurs menstrual cycle length (for 125 cycles) varied from 18 to 45 days with a mean ± s.d. of 26·3 ± 3·6 days. Menstruation lasted for 2 days. A distinct cycle of vaginal smear cells was observed with a maximum cornification on Day 10 coinciding with the serum oestradiol peak. A monophasic pattern of vaginal temperature with a significant nadir on Day 11, 1 day after the oestradiol peak, was observed. Serum sialic acid concentrations directly reflected the oestrogenic activity and showed a significant peak on Day 10, coinciding with the oestradiol peak and was followed by a progesterone rise. Langurs menstruated throughout the year without showing any sign of summer amenorrhoea. We suggest that maximum cornification, vaginal temperature nadir and serum sialic acid peak could be used as markers for prediction and detection of the time of ovulation in langur monkeys.

Keywords: langur; vaginal temperature; serum oestradiol; vaginal smear patterns; serum sialic acid; ovulation; menstrual cycle