Caroline E Gargett
Sonya A Hubbard and Caroline E Gargett
Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynaecological malignancy affecting women in the western world. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are defined as a subset of tumour cells with the capacity to self-renew and give rise to the differentiated cells that comprise the bulk of the tumour. Given that a rare population of epithelial stem/progenitor cells has been identified in human endometrium, it is possible that these cells or their progeny may be the source of the putative CSCs that may initiate and maintain EC. Studies have shown that some cells within EC have the capacity to initiate clones that undergo self-renewing cell division and form tumours in vivo that can be serially passaged, demonstrating self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation abilities of the potential EC stem cells (ECSCs). These potential ECSCs may be located within the tumour cell population expressing CD133 and/or within the side population. With the discovery of markers for ECSCs, it is hoped that ECSCs can be isolated and characterised, and that their role in the development of human EC will be further investigated. This knowledge opens the way for the development of new treatment modalities that target the CSCs, but spares normal endometrial stem/progenitor cells and other cells. Such treatments will be particularly useful for early-stage and pre-menopausal EC candidates where the uterus may be conserved, and for late-stage cases where hysterectomy is not curative and current treatments target the bulk tumour cells rather than CSCs.
Xiaoqing Yang, Meivita Devianti, Yuan H Yang, Yih Rue Ong, Ker Sin Tan, Shanti Gurung, Jean L Tan, Dandan Zhu, Rebecca Lim, Caroline E Gargett and James A Deane
Perivascular mesenchymal stem/stromal cells can be isolated from the human endometrium using the surface marker SUSD2 and are being investigated for use in tissue repair. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells from other tissues modulate T cell responses via mechanisms including interleukin-10, prostaglandin E2, TGF-β1 and regulatory T cells. Animal studies demonstrate that endometrial mesenchymal stem/stromal cells can also modify immune responses to implanted mesh, but the mechanism/s they employ have not been explored. We examined the immunomodulatory properties of human endometrial mesenchymal stem/stromal cells on lymphocyte proliferation using mouse splenocyte cultures. Endometrial mesenchymal stem/stromal cells inhibited mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation was not affected by blocking the mouse interleukin-10 receptor or inhibiting prostaglandin production. Endometrial mesenchymal stem/stromal cells continued to restrain lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of an inhibitor of TGF-β receptors, despite a reduction in regulatory T cells. Thus, the in vitro inhibition of mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation by endometrial mesenchymal stem/stromal cells occurs by a mechanism distinct from the interleukin-10, prostaglandin E2, TGF-β1 and regulatory T cell-mediated mechanisms employed by MSC from other tissues. eMSCs were shown to produce interleukin-17A and Dickkopf-1 which may contribute to their immunomodulatory properties. In contrast to MSC from other sources, systemic administration of endometrial mesenchymal stem/stromal cells did not inhibit swelling in a T cell-mediated model of skin inflammation. We conclude that, while endometrial mesenchymal stem/stromal cells can modify immune responses, their immunomodulatory repertoire may not be sufficient to restrain some T cell-mediated inflammatory events.