Summary. Normal bovine serum albumin (BSA) in a complete medium without energy substrates promoted growth of 1-cell embryos to hatched blastocysts. Defatted charcoal-treated BSA did not promote growth to the blastocyst stage but the addition of pyruvate or palmitic and oleic acids allowed blastocyst growth but not blastocyst hatching. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-gel electrophoresis showed that both the normal and defatted BSA samples were heavily contaminated by proteins other than albumin. Fractionation of the normal BSA on Sephadex G-200 indicated that the property of promoting complete blastocyst hatching was not due to the albumin but was associated with the higher mol. wt fraction of the BSA. Extraction of normal BSA with chloroform appeared to destroy the hatching-promoting ability as neither the residue after extraction nor defatted BSA to which the organic extractate had been added promoted complete blastocyst hatching. It is concluded that commercial BSA may have at least two effects on blastocyst growth: (1) energy provision via albumin-bound fatty acids, and (2) promotion of blastocyst hatching by a non-albumin component.
A. R. Scanlon, S. J. Sunderland, T. L. Martin, D. Goulding, D. O'Callaghan, D. H. Williams, D. R. Headon, M. P. Boland, J. J. Ireland and J. F. Roche
Two experiments were conducted in cyclic beef heifers to determine whether active immunization against bovine inhibin α 1–26 Gly-Tyr (bINH) affected follicular dynamics, hormone concentration or ovulation rate. In Expt 1, heifers (n = 9) were actively immunized against bINH conjugated to human α globulins (HAG) using bisdiazotized benzidine in non-ulcerative Freund's adjuvant (NUFA; primary on day 0; booster injections on days 53, 84 and 116 using conjugated bINH and on days 176 and 366 using unconjugated bINH; ten heifers were used as controls). Ovaries were examined daily using ultrasound scanning (days 70–155 and 384–391) and corresponding blood samples were collected for bINH antibody titre, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and oestradiol determinations. Four treated and four control heifers were injected with 10 μg gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) on day 386 (day 2 of the oestrous cycle). Although bINH-immunized heifers had variable antibody titres ranging from 4 to 50% I125-labelled bINH bound to serum diluted 1:2000, ovulation rate was unaffected. In oestrous cycles with three dominant follicles, the ovulatory follicles grew faster (2.5 ± 0.2 versus 1.6 ± 0.3 mm day−1; mean ± sem), had shorter durations of growth (5.7 ± 0.8 versus 9.6 ± 1.6 days) and duration of detection (7.5 ± 0.8 versus 12.0 ± 2.4 days) in immunized heifers. Mean concentrations of FSH, LH and oestradiol were unaltered in most cases during oestrous cycles in bINH-immunized compared with control heifers. There was no significant difference in the percentage increase in FSH or LH, after GnRH injection, between control and immunized heifers. As ovulation rate was unaltered in the first experiment, a second similar study was designed using a different immunization protocol. In Expt 2, heifers were immunized with bINH conjugated to human serum albumin using glutaraldehyde with the following doses: 0.0 (control; n = 7), 0.33 (n = 7), 1.0 (n = 8) and 3.0 (n = 7) mg. Three booster immunizations were given 33, 66 and 209 days after primary immunization. Immunization increased the number of oestrous cycles with multiple ovulations (42 of 132 (32%) oestrous cycles examined) compared with controls (1 of 30 (3.3%) oestrous cycles examined). Neither titre nor ovulation rate was affected by dose of bINH used. In summary, following bINH immunization, ovulation rate was not increased despite changes in follicular dynamics in Expt 1, but was increased in 32% of oestrous cycles in Expt 2. We conclude that immunization protocols can affect responsiveness of heifers to bINH immunization, and that immunization against inhibin can increase ovulation rate.