Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has become a useful technique for clinical applications in the horse-breeding industry. However, both ICSI blastocyst and offspring production continues to be limited for most farm and wild species. This article reviews technical differences of ICSI performance among species, possible biological and methodological reasons for the variable efficiency and potential strategies to improve the outcomes. One of the major applications of ICSI in animal production is the reproduction of high-value specimens. Unfortunately, some domestic species like the bovine show low rates of pronuclei formation after sperm injection, which led to the development of various artificial activation protocols and sperm pre-treatments that are discussed in this article. The impact of ICSI technique on equine breeding programs is considered in detail, since in contrast to other species, its use for elite horse reproduction has increased in recent years. ICSI has also been used to produce genetically modified animals; however, despite numerous attempts in several domestic species, only transgenic pigs have been consistently produced. Finally, the ICSI is a promising tool for genetic rescue of endangered and wild species. In conclusion, while ICSI has become a consistent ART for some species, it needs further development for others. The low results obtained for some domestic species, the high training needed and the equipment required have limited this technique to the production of elite specimens or for research purposes.
Daniel F Salamone, Natalia G Canel, and María Belén Rodríguez
Virginia Savy, Virgilia Alberio, Natalia G Canel, Laura D Ratner, Maria I Gismondi, Sergio F Ferraris, Rafael Fernandez-Martín, Jason G Knott, Romina J Bevacqua, and Daniel F Salamone
CRISPR-mediated transcriptional activation, also known as CRISPR-on, has proven efficient for activation of individual or multiple endogenous gene expression in cultured cells from several species. However, the potential of CRISPR-on technology in preimplantation mammalian embryos remains to be explored. Here, we report for the first time the successful modulation of endogenous gene expression in bovine embryos by using the CRISPR-on system. As a proof of principle, we targeted the promoter region of either SMARCA4 or TFAP2C genes, transcription factors implicated in trophoblast lineage commitment during embryo development. We demonstrate that CRISPR-on provides temporal control of endogenous gene expression in bovine embryos, by simple cytoplasmic injection of CRISPR RNA components into one cell embryos. dCas9VP160 activator was efficiently delivered and accurately translated into protein, being detected in the nucleus of all microinjected blastomeres. Our approach resulted in the activation of SMARCA expression shortly after microinjection, with a consequent effect on downstream differentiation promoting factors, such as TFAP2C and CDX2. Although targeting of TFAP2C gene did not result in a significant increase in TFAP2C expression, there was a profound induction in CDX2 expression on day 2 of development. Finally, we demonstrate that CRISPR-on system is suitable for gene expression modulation during the preimplantation period, since no detrimental effect was observed on microinjected embryo development. This study constitutes a first step toward the application of the CRISPR-on system for the study of early embryo cell fate decisions in cattle and other mammalian embryos, as well as to design novel strategies that may lead to an improved trophectoderm development.
Matteo Duque Rodriguez, Andrés Gambini, Laura D Ratner, Adrian J Sestelo, Olinda Briski, Cynthia Gutnisky, Susana B Rulli, Rafael Fernández Martin, Pablo Cetica, and Daniel F Salamone
Heterospecific embryo transfer of an endangered species has been carried out using recipients from related domestic females. Aggregation of an embryo from an endangered species with a tetraploid embryo from the species to be transferred could improve the development of pregnancy to term. The main objective of the present study was to analyze embryo aggregation in domestic cat model using hybrid embryos. For this purpose, we compared in vitro development of synchronic (Sync) or asynchronic (Async) and asynchronic with a tetraploid (Async4n) aggregation of domestic cat IVF embryos. Furthermore, aggregated blastocyst quality was analyzed by evaluation of the total cell number, cell allocation by mitotrackers staining of embryonic cells, expression of Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, Cdx2 genes, number of OCT4+ nuclei, and presence of DNA fragmentation. Additionally, the developmental rates of Async4n aggregation of domestic cat with Leopardus geoffroyi hybrid (hLg) embryos were evaluated. Async aggregation increased blastocyst cell number and the number of OCT4+ nuclei as compared to non-aggregated diploid (2n) and tetraploid (4n) embryos. Moreover, blastocysts produced by Async4n aggregation showed reduced rates of fragmented DNA. No differences were found in the expression of the pluripotent genes, with exception of the Cdx2 expression, which was higher in 4n and aggregated embryos as compared to the control group. Interestingly, hybrids embryos derived by Async4n aggregation with domestic cat embryos had similar rates of blastocysts development as the control. Altogether, the findings support the use of two-cell-fused embryos to generate tetraploid blastomeres and demonstrate that Async4n aggregation generates good quality embryos.