Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for

  • Author: E Fitzpatrick x
  • Refine by Access: All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Free access

J. Cavalieri, J. E. Kinder, and L. A. Fitzpatrick

The aim of the present study was to develop a treatment protocol for the precise synchronization of oestrus that would avoid the development of persistent dominant ovarian follicles. Bos indicus heifers, in which oestrous cycles had been presynchronized, were allocated randomly, according to the day of their oestrous cycle, to one of five treatment groups. All heifers received a subcutaneous ear implant containing 3 mg of norgestomet for 17 days starting on day 0 and an injection of an analogue of prostaglandin F on days 0 and 4. Heifers in group 1 (control group; n = 7) received no other treatment, while heifers in groups 2 (n = 8), 3 (n = 7), 4(n = 7), and 5 (n= 7) received a single progesterone-releasing controlled internal drug release device (CIDR) for 24 h on days 10, 12, 14 and 16, respectively. Treatment with a single CIDR delayed the mean time of ovulation and the day of emergence of the ovulatory follicle in heifers treated on days 14 and 16 compared with control heifers (P <0.05). There was less variation in the interval to ovulation in heifers treated on day 10 compared with other treated heifers (P < 0.05). The variation among heifers in the day of emergence of the ovulatory follicle and the age of the ovulatory follicle at ovulation was less for all groups treated with a CIDR than for the control group (P <0.05). The duration of dominance and variation in the duration of dominance of the ovulatory follicle was less in heifers treated with a CIDR device on days 10 and 16 than for control heifers (P < 0.05). Mean age (days from emergence to ovulation) of the ovulatory follicle did not differ among treatment groups (P > 0.05). Concentrations of LH and oestradiol decreased coincident with increased concentrations of progesterone on the days of CIDR treatment in treated compared with control heifers (P < 0.02) but increased again after removal of the CIDR. A smaller proportion of follicles in the growing phase of follicular development at the time of CIDR treatment become atretic compared with follicles that had reached a plateau phase of follicular growth (14.3% (1/7) versus 90.5% (19/21), respectively; P < 0.001). It was concluded that acute treatment with progesterone can influence the growth pattern of ovarian follicular development. However, the effect varies with the stage of ovarian follicular development. Short term treatment with progesterone 7 days before the end of a 17 day period of norgestomet treatment resulted in precise synchrony of ovulation without the ovulation of a persistent dominant ovarian follicle.

Free access

F. M. Rhodes, L. A. Fitzpatrick, K. W. Entwistle, and J. E. Kinder

Changes in pulsatile secretion of LH, FSH, oestradiol and progesterone were related to the growth phase, early plateau phase and regression phase of the first ovarian dominant follicle of the oestrous cycle in Bos indicus heifers. Relationships between these hormones during the three phases were also investigated. Accurate measurements of episodic ovarian steroid secretion were obtained by catheterizing the caudal vena cava via the lateral saphenous vein; the tip of the catheter was positioned just cranial to the ovarian vein using transrectal ultrasonography. Pulsatile secretion of oestradiol was increased only during the growth phase of the dominant follicle and was associated with high frequency release of LH pulses. However, mean concentrations of oestradiol were reduced when the dominant follicle attained its maximum diameter. Between the growth and plateau phases, as the amount of progesterone released increased and oestradiol released decreased, LH pulse frequency and mean concentration of LH decreased. Pulses of LH released were followed within 15 min by increases in mean concentrations of oestradiol (P < 0.001); however, there was no apparent relationship between LH and progesterone release (P = 0.19). Although there was little evidence of pulsatile release of FSH, mean concentrations of FSH were increased by 0.2 ng ml−1 (P = 0.04) during the plateau phase, which was on average 2.1 days before the day of emergence of the second dominant follicle of the oestrous cycle. This increase in FSH, in conjunction with the decrease in secretion of oestradiol, may be an indication of the loss of functional dominance by the first dominant follicle of the oestrous cycle.

Free access

L A Okumu, N Forde, A G Fahey, E Fitzpatrick, J F Roche, M A Crowe, and P Lonergan

To investigate the effects of pregnancy or post-ovulatory progesterone (P4) supplementation on the expression of oestrogen and P4 receptors (ESRs and PGRs) in the bovine uterus, heifers (n=263) were randomly assigned to the following treatments: i) cyclic, normal P4; ii) cyclic, high P4; iii) pregnant, normal P4; and iv) pregnant, high P4 on days 5, 7, 13 and 16 of pregnancy/oestrous cycle. Elevated P4 was achieved through P4-releasing intravaginal device insertion on day 3 after oestrus, resulting in increased concentrations from day 3.5 to 8 (P<0.05) in the high groups than in the normal groups. Irrespective of treatment, PGR and ESR1 mRNA expressions were highest on days 5 and 7 and decreased on day 13 (P<0.05), while ESR2 mRNA expression increased on day 7 (P<0.05) and similar levels were maintained within the normal P4 groups subsequently. Expression in the high P4 groups decreased on day 13 (P<0.05). PGR-AB and PGR-B protein expressions were high in the luminal and superficial glands on days 5 and 7, but by day 13, expression had declined to very low or undetectable levels and high P4 concentration tended to decrease or decreased significantly (P<0.05) the expression in these regions on days 5 and 7. ESR1 protein expression was high, with no treatment effect. ESR2 protein was also highly expressed, with no clear effect of treatment. In conclusion, early post-ovulatory P4 supplementation advances the disappearance of PGR protein from the luminal epithelium on days 5 and 7, and decreases ESR2 mRNA expression during the mid-luteal phase, but has no effect on PGR or ESR1 mRNA expression.

Free access

K Alkhodair, H Almhanna, J McGetrick, S Gedair, M E Gallagher, B Fernandez-Fuertes, T Tharmalingam, P B Larsen, E Fitzpatrick, P Lonergan, A C O Evans, S D Carrington, and C J Reid

Sialic acid (Sia) is a major constituent of both the sperm glycocalyx and female reproductive mucosal surface and is involved in regulating sperm migration, uterotubal reservoir formation and oocyte binding. Siglecs (sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin – like lectins) commonly found on immune cells, bind to Sia in a linkage- and sugar-specific manner and often mediate cell-to-cell interactions and signalling. Proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of human and bovine sperm have listed Siglecs, but to date, their presence and/or localisation on sperm has not been studied. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterise the presence of Siglecs on the surface of bovine, human and ovine sperm using both immunostaining and Western blotting. Siglec 1, 2, 5, 6, 10 and 14 were identified and displayed both species- and regional-specific expression on sperm. Almost universal expression across Siglecs and species was evident in the sperm neck and midpiece region while variable expression among Siglecs, similar among species, was detected in the head and tail regions of the sperm. The possible role for these proteins on sperm is discussed.