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  • Author: E. F. GRAHAM x
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B. S. AHLUWALIA and E. F. GRAHAM

Summary.

A total of eighteen amino acids were determined quantitatively in the seminal plasma and spermatozoa of fowl semen. Glutamic acid was the major component in both fractions. In the spermatozoan fraction, only six amino acids were detected, namely glutamic acid, lysine, arginine, serine, aspartic acid and threonine. Except for serine and lysine, the amino acid concentrations in the spermatozoan fraction were much smaller than in the seminal plasma. In general, the amino acid content of turkey seminal plasma is similar to chicken seminal plasma with a few quantitative differences.

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C. D. GIBSON and E. F. GRAHAM

Glycerol has been the most widely-used protective agent for the freezing of bull semen. However, Nagase, Graham & Niwa (1964) demonstrated that bovine spermatozoa could be frozen without the addition of glycerol. The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether a relationship exists between the motility of an individual bull's semen after subjecting it to the stress of freezing without the protection of added glycerol and the fertilizing capacity of that animal's semen after freezing by commercial means. Semen used in this study was obtained from adult bulls in regular use at a commercial bull stud. Motility, volume and sperm cell concentration were recorded and a 0·5 ml sample was taken from the first ejaculate of each bull immediately after collection. The 0·5-ml semen sample was diluted in 1·5 ml of a solution containing 18·5 g of raffinose/100 ml of water and 20% egg yolk by volume. The sample
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V. G. PURSEL and E. F. GRAHAM

Summary.

Spermatozoal and seminal plasma lipids of fourteen individual bulls were separated by column chromatography into neutral lipid and several phospholipid fractions. Elution progress was monitored by thin-layer chromatography. Each phospholipid constituent was determined by phosphorus analysis. Total lipid, cholesterol and plasmalogen contents were determined. The fatty acids and aldehydes of the choline and ethanolamine phosphatide fractions were analysed by gasliquid chromatography.

The spermatozoal phospholipid comprised 35·6% phosphatidyl choline, 28% phosphatidal choline, 20% phosphatidyl ethanolamine, 7·2% phosphatidal ethanolamine and 9·1% sphingomyelin.

The seminal plasma phospholipid comprised 30% phosphatidyl choline, 23·6% phosphatidal choline, 10·5% phosphatidyl ethanolamine, 16·3% phosphatidal ethanolamine, 14·1% sphingomyelin and 5·4% polyglycerol phosphatide.

Myristaldehyde and palmitaldehyde were the only aldehydes identified in the choline and ethanolamine phosphatide fractions. Docosahexaenoic acid constituted a large portion of the fatty acids of spermatozoal choline phosphatide.

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C. E. GRAHAM and CAROLYN F. BRADLEY

Summary.

Almost 30% of ovarian follicles contained more than one oocyte in squirrel monkeys with chronic implants of diethylstilboestrol. Polyovular follicles were relatively infrequent in control animals. This finding raises the possibility of neogenesis of oocytes in adult haplorhine primates.

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T. L. AVERY and E. F. GRAHAM

Summary.

Recovery of ova was effected by slaughter of the donor and removal and flushing of the reproductive tract. A significantly greater percentage of ova were recovered from cows than from calves. Cow ova were fertilized at the rate of 61·49% while fertilization rate of calf ova was 23·6 %. A significantly greater percentage of cows, not possessing corpora lutea at breeding, produced more fertilized ova than did cows possessing a 'full-sized' corpus. The administration of stilboestrol to cows possessing 'full-sized' corpora lutea was observed to significantly increase the percentage of fertilized ova recovered from 14·29 to 66·6%. Also, the administration of stilboestrol increased the percentage of fertilized ova recovered from calves, and permitted the collection of fertilized ova from pregnant cows.

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B. S. AHLUWALIA and E. F. GRAHAM

Summary.

Three main carbohydrate components were isolated and identified by paper chromatography from the seminal plasma of fowl semen; namely, inositol, glucose and glycerol. Similarly, three carbohydrate components were isolated and identified from the washed sperm cells. These are inositol, glucose and erythritol.

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R. E. BOWER Jr, E. F. GRAHAM and B. CRABO

Efforts to study the physiology and chemistry of epididymal spermatozoa have been hampered by the limitations placed on the investigator by the source of his materials. Earlier studies (Mann, 1959, 1964; Crabo, 1965) have relied on epididymides obtained at castration or following destruction of the experimental animal, procedures which severely limit the amount of data obtained from one boar. Attempts to cannulate and expose the vasa deferentia of the boar (Wierzbowski & Wierzchos, 1969; Johnson, Pursel & Kraeling, 1971; Einarsson, 1971) have had limited success because of exudative contamination, changes in sperm morphology and difficulty in maintaining a patent duct. Ninety-three days has been the maximum amount of time that epididymal spermatozoa and fluids have been collected by this method (Wierzbowski & Wierzchos, 1969).

Partial blockage of the seminal secretions of the accessory sex glands can be accomplished by injection of large doses of atropine, a parasympathetic-blocking agent (Dziuk, 1959;

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T. L. AVERY, C. L. COLE and E. F. GRAHAM

Summary.

Synchronization of bovine oestrous cycles was studied with respect to methods of accomplishment. A total of 328 cows were recycled by: (a) daily subcutaneous injections of progesterone, (b) larger subcutaneous injections every 3rd day and (c) corpus luteum expression. Standing oestrous was exhibited by 262 cows. Twelve did not exhibit oestrus and fifty-four exhibited symptoms but refused mounting. Time between treatment and oestrus was 4·97 ±1 82, 6·52 ±1 ·25 and 2 ·84 ±0·68 days, respectively, for the three methods employed. Length of time between injection and oestrus did not differ significantly as influenced by day of initiation, the duration of injections or by superovulation. Differences between fifty-nine recycled and fifty-three control cows, with respect to rate of conception, were not significant nor were differences between the first and second services after recycling.

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A. Tajima, E. F. Graham and D. M. Hawkins

Summary. Semen was collected from Rhode Island Red and White Leghorn roosters. After adjusting the sperm number from both breeds, half of the semen was frozen–thawed in the presence of glycerol. Frozen and unfrozen semen from both breeds was mixed 1:1 with all four possible combinations and inseminated into Rhode Island Red hens. Feather colour of chicks was used to determine which breed fertilized the eggs. Results showed that sperm cells retained 19·7% [95% confidence interval = (12·8, 30·4)] of the relative fertilizing ability after freezing. Furthermore, Rhode Island Red spermatozoa had 1·5 times [95% confidence interval = (1·1, 2·0)] higher relative fertilizing ability than did White Leghorn spermatozoa. The heterospermic competition assay method is a powerful tool for estimating the relative fertilizing ability of the sperm cells.

Keywords: chicken; semen; frozen; fertility; sperm competition

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T. L. AVERY, M. L. FAHNING and E. F. GRAHAM

Summary.

(1) Purified swine fsh and lh effectively induced superovulation in mature and immature as well as pregnant bovine females. Sixty-one of seventy-five treated cows and calves ovulated, producing a total of 1716 ovulation points which ranged from one to eighty-eight with a mean of 28·13. Twenty-eight of thirty-two cows and thirty-three of forty-three calves responded to treatment by ovulating. Calves produced an average of 12·46 more ovulations than did cows. (2) Neither the addition of prolactin to the ovulatory dosage of lh nor the administration of lh for 2 consecutive days proved superior to the single injection of lh as an ovulatory procedure for calves. (3) Calves produced 54·03% of their total ovulations on the right ovary compared to 51·17% for cows. (4) Nineteen cows, having undergone oestrus synchronization, produced an average of 7·89 ovulations more than were produced by nine similar individuals, superovulated without prior treatment with progesterone. (5) 60·21% of all cows superovulated demonstrated oestrus. A significantly greater number of cows receiving progesterone as well as those undergoing enucleation of corpora lutea exhibited oestrus than did cows not receiving treatment prior to superovulation. (6) Superovulated cows exhibiting oestrus produced an average of 3·82 ovulations more than were produced by superovulated cows failing to show heat.