Pregnancy represents a time of dramatic physiological adaptation by the mother in which dramatic changes in maternal cardiovascular, metabolic and immune systems occur. These adaptations, initiated from the earliest stages of gestation, are crucial for the implantation and continued development of the embryo, the establishment of the placenta and the growth of the fetus. Impairments in the normal adaptation of the maternal cardiovascular, metabolic and immune systems underlie the aetiology of gestational disorders such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. Studies have shown that the development of such gestational complications not only affects the well-being of the mother but also the short- and long-term health of her offspring. While the connection between maternal lifestyle factors and the development of gestational disorders such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes has been studied in detail, the link between a father’s lifestyle and the well-being of the mother during pregnancy has received less attention. In this review, we will explore the evidence that a range of paternal factors, such as age and diet, at the time of conception can not only affect the development of his offspring, but also the well-being of the mother during pregnancy. In addition, we will examine the sperm- and seminal plasma-specific mechanisms that connect the health of the father with that of the mother and his offspring.
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