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  • Author: F. W. LORENZ x
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F. X. OGASAWARA and F. W. LORENZ

Summary.

Oxygen consumption of unwashed fowl semen was manometrically determined in diluents containing 10% suspensions of extracts from the five regions of the hen's oviduct. Extracts from the magnum (and, to a lesser extent, from the infundibulum) augmented the respiratory rate of the spermatozoa. High mechanical pressure or homogenization of the tissue was required for extraction of the active substance(s). The active material appears to be of large molecular size, very likely protein in nature; it is not present, in significant amounts at least, in blood or egg albumen. The significance of the substance from the magnum in increasing the metabolic activity of fowl spermatozoa is discussed.

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F. W. LORENZ and F. X. OGASAWARA

Summary.

Effects on embryonic development of inseminating normally into the vagina and directly into the anterior oviduct were compared in the domestic hen. Insemination into the anterior oviduct led to a higher incidence of early mortality, severe retardation and other abnormalities of the embryo. These effects were overbalanced by an increased fertile period, so that a larger number of live chicks was obtained following a single insemination into the anterior oviduct than following an insemination into the vagina.

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LIDIA WANDA BOBR, F. X. OGASAWARA and F. W. LORENZ

Summary.

The distribution of spermatozoa in the oviducts of domestic hens, at various times after artificial insemination or copulation, confirmed and extended previous observations regarding the speed with which spermatozoa may traverse the uterovaginal junction and ascend the oviduct. These spermatozoa disappear within less than 24 hr. Thereafter, spermatozoa are ordinarily found only in the uterovaginal glands except about the time of oviposition or ovulation. They presumably reenter the oviduct lumen, under the influence of oviposition or ovulation. Spermatozoa were found in considerable numbers on the vitelline membranes of eggs and occasionally in egg albumen.

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F. X. OGASAWARA, F. W. LORENZ and LIDIA WANDA BOBR

Summary.

Semen from low-fecundity cocks, characterized by relatively large numbers of spermatozoa with abnormal morphology, poor motility and sluggish metabolism, fertilized very few eggs when inseminated mid-vaginally, but produced moderate fertility when deposited in the uterus.

The percentage of pre-ovipositally dead embryos was also increased in eggs fertilized by spermatozoa from low-fecundity cocks when these were deposited directly in the uterus.

Few spermatozoa from low-fecundity cocks entered and/or survived in oviducal glands, especially in those of the uterovaginal junction.

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LIDIA WANDA BOBR, F. W. LORENZ and F. X. OGASAWARA

Summary.

A glandular region is described in the uterovaginal junction of the domestic fowl; the glands are residence sites for spermatozoa, which invade them rapidly and in large numbers after copulation or artificial insemination. Accumulations of spermatozoa are found in these glands, though in decreasing numbers, for as long as fertilized eggs are produced. The accumulations are similar in appearance to those previously described in infundibular glands, but spermatozoa can be made to penetrate the latter in considerable numbers only with special and unusual techniques. Consequently, it is suggested that the uterovaginal glands, not the infundibular glands, are the normal residence sites for those spermatozoa that are responsible for the continued fertilization of eggs after artificial insemination or when the hen is separated from the male.

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H. P. VAN KREY, F. X. OGASAWARA and F. W. LORENZ

Summary.

Intramagnal insemination by a procedure which caused the deposition of large numbers of spermatozoa in infundibular glands but few or none in uterovaginal glands, resulted in prolonged fertility with an exceptionally high incidence of pre-oviposital embryonic mortality, as compared with the fertility resulting from insemination by techniques which deposited spermatozoa primarily in the uterovaginal glands.

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A. B. GILBERT, MARGARET E. REYNOLDS and F. W. LORENZ

Summary.

The innervation and vascular supply of the uterovaginal sperm-host glands of the domestic hen were investigated. No nerves were associated with these glands, although nerves were demonstrated in other regions of the oviduct.

The glands have a complex blood supply consisting of a capillary network connected to the arterial and venous systems and to the epithelial capillary plexus. The capillaries of the glands are in intimate contact with the cells over relatively great lengths.

The possibility of the vascular system being in some way related to the control of the function of the glands is discussed.

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A. B. GILBERT, MARGARET E. REYNOLDS and F. W. LORENZ

Summary.

Histochemical tests in the uterovaginal region of the mature domestic fowl have demonstrated that sperm-host glands, and to a lesser extent transitional glands, contain glycogen. Uterine glands and epithelial tissue contain either no carbohydrate or only mucopolysaccharides. The host glands contained a lipid in granules which is presumably secretory; this may be an atypical phospholipid or one which is present as a complex with other substances. No discrete sites of protein synthesis were observed. They also secrete acid phosphatase but not potassium. The functions of these substances have not yet been determined.

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A. B. GILBERT, MARGARET E. REYNOLDS and F. W. LORENZ

Summary.

The effect of a surgical thread placed in the uterus (shellgland) on the function of the sperm-host glands was investigated. It was confirmed by histological examination that treated birds, whether inseminated before or after surgery, had fewer spermatozoa in the glands than did untreated birds. No effect on the glandular secretions was revealed. These observations are discussed in relation to glandular function and the survival of spermatozoa within the oviduct.