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  • Author: F. X. OGASAWARA x
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F. X. OGASAWARA and F. W. LORENZ

Summary.

Oxygen consumption of unwashed fowl semen was manometrically determined in diluents containing 10% suspensions of extracts from the five regions of the hen's oviduct. Extracts from the magnum (and, to a lesser extent, from the infundibulum) augmented the respiratory rate of the spermatozoa. High mechanical pressure or homogenization of the tissue was required for extraction of the active substance(s). The active material appears to be of large molecular size, very likely protein in nature; it is not present, in significant amounts at least, in blood or egg albumen. The significance of the substance from the magnum in increasing the metabolic activity of fowl spermatozoa is discussed.

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F. W. LORENZ and F. X. OGASAWARA

Summary.

Effects on embryonic development of inseminating normally into the vagina and directly into the anterior oviduct were compared in the domestic hen. Insemination into the anterior oviduct led to a higher incidence of early mortality, severe retardation and other abnormalities of the embryo. These effects were overbalanced by an increased fertile period, so that a larger number of live chicks was obtained following a single insemination into the anterior oviduct than following an insemination into the vagina.

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LIDIA WANDA BOBR, F. X. OGASAWARA and F. W. LORENZ

Summary.

The distribution of spermatozoa in the oviducts of domestic hens, at various times after artificial insemination or copulation, confirmed and extended previous observations regarding the speed with which spermatozoa may traverse the uterovaginal junction and ascend the oviduct. These spermatozoa disappear within less than 24 hr. Thereafter, spermatozoa are ordinarily found only in the uterovaginal glands except about the time of oviposition or ovulation. They presumably reenter the oviduct lumen, under the influence of oviposition or ovulation. Spermatozoa were found in considerable numbers on the vitelline membranes of eggs and occasionally in egg albumen.

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F. X. OGASAWARA, F. W. LORENZ and LIDIA WANDA BOBR

Summary.

Semen from low-fecundity cocks, characterized by relatively large numbers of spermatozoa with abnormal morphology, poor motility and sluggish metabolism, fertilized very few eggs when inseminated mid-vaginally, but produced moderate fertility when deposited in the uterus.

The percentage of pre-ovipositally dead embryos was also increased in eggs fertilized by spermatozoa from low-fecundity cocks when these were deposited directly in the uterus.

Few spermatozoa from low-fecundity cocks entered and/or survived in oviducal glands, especially in those of the uterovaginal junction.

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LIDIA WANDA BOBR, F. W. LORENZ and F. X. OGASAWARA

Summary.

A glandular region is described in the uterovaginal junction of the domestic fowl; the glands are residence sites for spermatozoa, which invade them rapidly and in large numbers after copulation or artificial insemination. Accumulations of spermatozoa are found in these glands, though in decreasing numbers, for as long as fertilized eggs are produced. The accumulations are similar in appearance to those previously described in infundibular glands, but spermatozoa can be made to penetrate the latter in considerable numbers only with special and unusual techniques. Consequently, it is suggested that the uterovaginal glands, not the infundibular glands, are the normal residence sites for those spermatozoa that are responsible for the continued fertilization of eggs after artificial insemination or when the hen is separated from the male.

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H. P. VAN KREY, F. X. OGASAWARA and F. W. LORENZ

Summary.

Intramagnal insemination by a procedure which caused the deposition of large numbers of spermatozoa in infundibular glands but few or none in uterovaginal glands, resulted in prolonged fertility with an exceptionally high incidence of pre-oviposital embryonic mortality, as compared with the fertility resulting from insemination by techniques which deposited spermatozoa primarily in the uterovaginal glands.

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W. H. BURKE, F. X. OGASAWARA and C. L. FUQUA

Summary.

The general ultrastructure of the storage tubules for spermatozoa at the junction of the uterus with the vagina in the domestic fowl at various stages in the egg-laying cycle has been examined. Secretions were produced by tubule cells but no evidence was observed of a cyclic secretion of material into the lumen of tubules corresponding with the movement of ova in the oviduct and with the time of oviposition. Thus, a mechanism for the periodic flushing of spermatozoa from the tubules before the fertilization of ova in the upper region of the oviduct was considered unlikely to occur.