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Yali Xu, Yong Fan, Weimin Fan, Jia Jing, Ke Xue, Xing Zhang, Bin Ye, Yingjie Ji, Yue Liu and Zhide Ding

Asthenozoospermia is one of the leading causes of male infertility owing to a decline in sperm motility. Herein, we determined if there is a correlation between RNASET2 content on human spermatozoa and sperm motility in 205 semen samples from both asthenozoospermia patients and normozoospermia individuals. RNASET2 content was higher in sperm from asthenozoospermia patients than in normozoospermia individuals. On the other hand, its content was inversely correlated with sperm motility as well as progressive motility. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of RNASET2 on sperm motility was induced by incubating normozoospermic sperm with RNase T2 protein. Such treatment caused significant declines in intracellular spermatozoa PKA activity, PI3K activity and calcium level, which resulted in severely impaired sperm motility, and the sperm motility was largely rescued by cAMP supplementation. Finally, protein immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry identified proteins whose interactions with RNASET2 were associated with declines in human spermatozoa motility. AKAP4, a protein regulating PKA activity, coimmunoprecipated with RNASET2 and they colocalized with one another in the sperm tail, which might contribute to reduced sperm motility. Thus, RNASET2 may be a novel biomarker of asthenozoospermia. Increases in RNASET2 can interact with AKAP4 in human sperm tail and subsequently reduce sperm motility by suppressing PKA/PI3K/calcium signaling pathways.

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Jing Wang, Fan Wu, Qingzhen Xie, Xiaorui Liu, Fuju Tian, Wangming Xu and Jing Yang

Bacteria and viruses activate the host innate immune response via Toll-like receptor (TLR)-involved signaling and potentially cause pregnancy failure. TLR7 and TLR9 respond to single-stranded RNA (a viral intermediate) and hypomethylated CpG DNA motifs (specific molecular constituents of bacteria) respectively. In this study, we treated murine RAW264.7 cells with R837, CpG1826, or a combination of the two. RT-PCR was performed to detect cytokines, Tlr7, and Tlr9. WT and nonobese diabetic murine embryo resorption models were established by i.p. injections of TLR7 and TLR9 ligands. Neutralizing antibodies and the IL1β and TNFα inhibitors were used. The specific inhibitors anakinra and etanercept effectively prevented TLR7 and TLR9 ligand-induced embryo loss. Notably, this effect was not observed in decidual NK cell-depleted mice. Our findings suggest that anakinra and etanercept may have potential for preventing TLR7 or TLR9 ligand-induced abortion in the presence of decidual NK cells.

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Liu Shi-fan, Wang Zhong-xing, Yuan Yao-e, Bing Sheng-min, Zhang Bei-zhu, Wu Jin-zhi, Wu Yi-e and Peng Xin-ying

Summary. The concentrations of LH, FSH, prolactin, oestradiol and progesterone in serum were measured daily during the menstrual cycle of 100 normal Chinese women. The cyclic changes in LH, FSH, oestradiol and progesterone were typical of ovulatory cycles in women of other ethnic groups as reported in the literature. The geometric mean of the LH midcycle peak value was 51·64 i.u./l, the FSH mid-cycle peak value was 11 ·52 i.u./l, the preovulatory oestradiol peak was 1229·12 pmol/1, and the progesterone luteal maximum was 53·27 nmol/1. The cyclic changes of prolactin concentrations were irregular: the value at mid-cycle was significantly higher than that at the follicular or luteal phases.

A correlation between the length of the cycle and mean concentrations of LH and oestradiol at different stages throughout the cycle was shown.

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Fei Gao, Jiyu Guan, Limei Liu, Sheng Zhang, Peipei An, Anran Fan, Guangqi Song, Peng Zhang, Tianchuang Zhao, Bo Tang, Xueming Zhang and Ziyi Li

The Wilms' tumour 1 (WT1) gene originally identified as a tumour suppressor associated with WTs encodes a zinc finger-containing transcription factor that is expressed in multiple tissues and is an important regulator of cellular and organ growth, proliferation, development, migration and survival. However, there is a deficiency of data regarding the expression and function of WT1 during oocyte maturation and preimplantation embryonic development. Herein, we sought to define the expression characteristics and functions of WT1 during oocyte maturation and preimplantation embryonic development in pigs. We show that WT1 is expressed in porcine oocytes and at all preimplantation stages in embryos generated by ICSI. We then evaluated the effects of down-regulating WT1 expression at germinal vesicle and early ICSI stages using a recombinant plasmid (pGLV3-WT1-shRNA). Down-regulation of WT1 did not affect oocyte maturation but significantly decreased preimplantation embryonic development and increased apoptosis in blastocysts. These results indicate that WT1 plays important roles in the development of porcine preimplantation embryos.

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Yang Yu, Chenhui Ding, Eryao Wang, Xinjie Chen, Xuemei Li, Chunli Zhao, Yong Fan, Liu Wang, Nathalie Beaujean, Qi Zhou, Alice Jouneau and Weizhi Ji

Even though it generates healthy adults, nuclear transfer in mammals remains an inefficient process. Mainly attributed to abnormal reprograming of the donor chromatin, this inefficiency may also be caused at least partly by a specific effect of the cloning technique which has not yet been well investigated. There are two main procedures for transferring nuclei into enucleated oocytes: fusion and piezoelectric microinjection, the latter being used mostly in mice. We have, therefore, decided to compare the quality and the developmental ability, both in vivo and in vitro, of embryos reconstructed with electrofusion or piezoelectric injection. In addition, the effect of piezo setups of differing electric strengths was investigated. Along with the record of the rate of development, we compared the nuclear integrity in the blastomeres during the first cleavages as well as the morphological and cellular quality of the blastocysts. Our results show that the piezo-assisted micromanipulation can induce DNA damage in the reconstructed embryos, apoptosis, and reduced cell numbers in blastocysts as well as a lower rate of development to term. Even if piezo-driven injection facilitates a faster and more efficient rate of reconstruction, it should be used with precaution and with as low parameters as possible.

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Inga Laezer, Sergio E Palma-Vera, Fan Liu, Marcus Frank, Nares Trakooljul, Andreas Vernunft, Jennifer Schoen and Shuai Chen

In mammals, around the time of ovulation, the hormonal profile dynamically changes in synchrony with reproductive events occurring in the oviduct, that is, sperm arrival, fertilization, and early embryo development. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been recently recognized as key components of the embryonic milieu; however, composition and function of oviductal EVs during this crucial period remains to be further explored. Therefore, we initially characterized EVs from porcine oviductal fluid specifically around the critical ovulation window: that is, estrus (E), late estrus (LE, day of expected ovulation), post ovulation (PO), and additionally diestrus (D). Total EV numbers gradually rose from D to E, LE and PO (P < 0.05), which corresponded to the total EV protein amount (P < 0.05). Strikingly, the mean size of EVs in PO was significantly smaller than in E and LE groups, which also had a lesser proportion of small EVs (P < 0.05). The EV protein cargoes during the periovulatory period were further analyzed by mass spectrometry. Qualitative analysis detected 1118 common proteins, which are most enriched in the cellular component of EVs/exosomes. Hierarchical clustering indicated similar protein profile within the biological replicates, but large discrepancy among stages. Further quantitative analysis discovered 34 and 4 differentially expressed proteins in the comparison between E and PO and in the comparison between E and LE, respectively. The dynamic EV protein profile together with the quick adaption in EV size and quantity suggests that porcine oviductal EV secretion are under the hormonal influence during the estrus cycle.