When levonorgestrel (LNG) is given for emergency contraception during the follicular phase, it not only inhibits or delays ovulation, but also induces changes in endometrial secretions that modulate sperm functionality. In order to characterize the female reproductive tract secreted molecules that may affect human spermatozoa, we analyzed changes in the protein content of uterine flushings obtained from women during the periovulatory phase of a control and a LNG-treated menstrual cycle. Lectin affinity analysis and 2D gel electrophoresis of uterine samples showed changes in protein glycosylation patterns and the presence of 31 differentially expressed proteins (8 upregulated and 23 downregulated). Mass spectrometry and Western blot analyses of the differential expressed proteins showed lactotransferrin (LTF) as one of the upregulated molecules by LNG. In this study, LTF exhibited significant dose-related effects on sperm functionality, particularly a decrease of calcium ionophore-induced acrosome reaction and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Overall, the results indicated that LNG promoted changes in the proteome of uterine secretions that might compromise human sperm capacitation. These data further support the participation of other mechanisms of action of LNG as emergency contraceptive, in addition to those on ovulation.
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Gabriela Hernández-Silva, Marta Durand, Fernando Larrea, and Mayel Chirinos
Rocío García-Becerra, David Ordaz-Rosado, Gabriela Noé, Bertha Chávez, Austin J Cooney, and Fernando Larrea
7α-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT) is an androgen with potent gonadotropin inhibitory activity and prostate-sparing effects. These attributes give MENT advantages over testosterone as a male contraceptive, but, as in the case of testosterone, a partial dose-dependent suppression of spermatogenesis has been observed. Combination of testosterone or MENT with synthetic progestins improves the rate of azoospermia; however, it is unknown whether these combinations affect hormone androgenicity or exert synergistic effects via progestational or androgenic interaction. Herein, using transactivation assays, we examined the ability of MENT alone or combined with several 19-nor-derived synthetic progestins to activate androgen receptor (AR)-dependent gene transcription. In addition, the capability of 7α-methyl-estradiol (7α-methyl-E2), an aromatized metabolite of MENT, to transactivate gene transcription via estrogen receptor α (ERα; ESR1) or ERβ (ESR2) was also investigated. As expected, MENT induced gene transactivation through either the progesterone receptor (PGR) or the AR. MENT was as efficient as progesterone in activating PGR-mediated reporter gene expression, but it was ten times more potent than testosterone and dihydrotestoterone in activating of AR-driven gene expression. The addition of increasing concentrations of other 19-nortestosterone derivatives (norethisterone or levonorgestrel) did not affect, in a significant manner, the ability of MENT to activate AR-dependent reporter gene transcription. The same results were obtained with different cell lines. 7α-Methyl-E2 resulted in potent estrogen activity via both ER subtypes with efficiency similar to natural E2. These results suggest that the addition of 19-nortestosterone-derived progestins, as a hormonal adjuvant in male fertility strategies for effective spermatogenic suppression, does not display any detrimental effect that would interfere with MENT androgenic transcriptional activity.
Mayel Chirinos, Marta Durand, María Elena González-González, Gabriela Hernández-Silva, Israel Maldonado-Rosas, Pablo López, and Fernando Larrea
Levonorgestrel (LNG), a synthetic 19 nor-testosterone derivative, is widely used for emergency contraception. It is well known that LNG prevents ovulation only when given prior to the surge of serum luteinizing hormone (LH) during the periovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle. This observation suggests that LNG, given its contraceptive efficacy, has additional effects other than those affecting ovulation. In this study, we have evaluated the effects on human sperm functionality of uterine flushings (UF) obtained from women at day LH + 1 of a control cycle (CTR-LH + 1) and after receiving LNG (LNG-LH + 1) two days before the surge of LH. Human sperm from normozoospermic donors were incubated with UF and protein tyrosine phosphorylation, sperm motility, acrosome reaction as well as zona pellucida (ZP) binding capacity were assessed. A significant decrease in total motility and tyrosine phosphorylation accompanied by an increase on spontaneous acrosome reaction was observed when sperm were incubated in the presence of LNG-LH + 1. None of these effects were mimicked by purified glycodelin A (GdA). Moreover, the addition of UF obtained during the periovulatory phase from LNG-treated women or the presence of purified GdA significantly decreased sperm-ZP binding. The data were compatible with changes affecting sperm capacitation, motility and interaction with the ZP. These results may offer evidence on additional mechanisms of action of LNG as an emergency contraceptive.