Ovariectomized adult rats with closed uteri were treated for 7 days with different oral and s.c. doses of oestradiol. oestrone, oestriol and ethinyl oestradiol. All treatments elicited the production of uterine fluid and the potencies of oestrogens were related to the amount of fluid secreted. Ethinyl oestradiol and oestradiol displayed similar activity when given s.c. A daily dose of 0·003 mg oestradiol/kg resulted in about 700 mg fluid. Oestrone was 3-10 times and oestriol about 100 times less active. Orally, ethinyl oestradiol was the most potent substance and 700 mg secretion was obtained with a dose of 0·03 mg/kg daily. Oestradiol was about 30 times, oestrone about 100 times and oestriol 50 times less active than ethinyl oestradiol by this route. The viscosity of the secretion was unaffected, remaining between 1.6 and 2.4 cP. The pH of the fluid did not change, but that of the uterine lumen diminished slightly. These effects of oestrogens were associated with an increase in the weight of the empty uterus and a decrease in body weight.