In humans, pregnancy maintenance depends on normal placental formation following trophoblast invasion into the endometrium and vascular remodeling. In the early stages of pregnancy, immune tolerance, inflammatory response and adaptation to hypoxia need to be precisely regulated in the placental microenvironment. Various types of cells, such as trophoblasts, endothelial cells, immune cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and adipocytes, induce normal placental development via intercellular interactions through soluble factors. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are used to diagnose various diseases because their constituents vary depending on the type of cell of origin and pathological characteristics. EV-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) and proteins in the placenta regulate inflammatory responses and the invasion of trophoblasts through intercellular delivery in the placental microenvironment. If the placenta does not adapt to the changed environment during early pregnancy, pregnancy disorders such as pre-eclampsia, preterm birth and gestational diabetes mellitus can occur. Thus, the important roles of EVs during pregnancy and development is fast emerging. This review describes the physiological role of EVs during placentation and their composition in the human placenta. It also suggests the possibility of finding EV markers that can diagnose pregnancy disorders. Furthermore, it describes the properties of EVs that affect pregnancy in livestock.
Changwon Yang, Gwonhwa Song and Whasun Lim
Gwonhwa Song, Fuller W Bazer and Thomas E Spencer
Radical S-adenosyl methionine domain containing 2 (RSAD2) encodes a cytoplasmic antiviral protein induced by interferons (IFN). Interferon-induced with helicase C domain 1 (IFIH1) is a RNA helicase involved in innate immune defense against viruses, growth suppression, and apoptosis. Interferon tau (IFNT), a Type I IFN produced by the peri-implantation ruminant conceptus, acts on the uterine endometrium to signal pregnancy recognition and promote receptivity to implantation. Transcriptional profiling identified RSAD2 and IFIH1 as IFNT regulated genes in the ovine uterine endometrium. This study tested the hypothesis that RSAD2 and IFIH1 were induced in the endometrium in a cell type-specific manner by IFNT from the conceptus during early pregnancy. Endometrial RSAD2 and IFIH1 mRNA increased between days 12 and 16 of pregnancy, but not of the estrous cycle. In pregnant ewes, RSAD2 and IFIH1 mRNAs increased in endometrial glands, and stroma and immune cells, but not in the luminal epithelium. Neither gene was expressed in the trophectoderm of day 18 or 20 conceptuses. Progesterone (P4) treatment of ovariectomized ewes did not induce expression RSAD2 or IFIH1 mRNA in the endometrium; however, intrauterine injections of IFNT induced expression of RSAD2 and IFIH1 mRNA in endometria of ewes treated with P4, as well as in ewes treated with P4 and the progesterone receptor antagonist, ZK 136,317. These results indicate that conceptus IFNT induces both RSAD2 and IFIH1 in a P4-independent manner in the ovine uterine endometrium. These two IFNT-stimulated genes are proposed to have biological roles in the establishment of uterine receptivity to the conceptus during implantation through induction of an antiviral state and modulation of local immune cells in the endometrium.
Gwonhwa Song, M Carey Satterfield, Jinyoung Kim, Fuller W Bazer and Thomas E Spencer
The actions of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) via LIF receptor (LIFR) and its co-receptor, IL6 signal transducer (IL6ST), are implicated in uterine receptivity to conceptus implantation in a number of species including sheep. The present study determined the effects of the estrous cycle, pregnancy, progesterone (P4), and interferon tau (IFNT) on the expression of LIFR and IL6ST in the ovine uterus. LIFR mRNA and protein were localized to the endometrial luminal (LE) and superficial glandular epithelia (sGE), whereas IL6ST mRNA and protein were localized primarily in the middle to deep GE. Both LIFR and IL6ST mRNAs and protein were more abundant in pregnant than cyclic ewes and increased from days 10 to 20 of pregnancy. Treatment of ovariectomized ewes with P4 and/or infusion of ovine IFNT increased LIFR and IL6ST in endometrial LE/sGE and GE respectively. Co-expression of LIFR and IL6ST as well as phosphorylated STAT3 was observed only in the upper GE of the endometrium as well as in the conceptus trophectoderm on days 18 and 20. In mononuclear trophectoderm and GE cells, LIF elicited an increase in phosphorylated STAT3 and MAPK3/1 MAPK proteins. Collectively, these results suggest that LIFR and IL6ST are both stimulated by IFNT and regulated by P4 in a complex stage- and cell-specific manner, and support the hypothesis that LIF exerts effects on the endometrial GE as well as conceptus trophectoderm during early pregnancy in sheep. Thus, LIF and STAT3 may have biological roles in endometrial function and trophectoderm growth and differentiation.
Gwonhwa Song, Jo-Ann G W Fleming, Jinyoung Kim, Thomas E Spencer and Fuller W Bazer
Interferon τ (IFNT), the pregnancy recognition signal in ruminants, abrogates the luteolytic mechanism for maintenance of the corpus luteum for production of progesterone (P4). This study examined the expression of DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 58 (DDX58) and phospholipid scramblase 1 (PLSCR1) mRNAs in the ovine uterus as these genes were increased most in 2fTGH (STAT1 positive) cells by IFNT. The results of this study indicated that IFNT regulates expression of DDX58 and PLSCR1 mRNAs in the ovine uterus, which confirmed the results of the in vitro transcriptional profiling experiment with the 2fTGH (parental STAT1 positive) and U3A (STAT1 null) cell lines. Steady-state levels of DDX58 and PLSCR1 mRNAs increased in cells of the ovine uterus between days 12 and 20 of pregnancy, but not between days 10 and 16 of the estrous cycle. The expression of DDX58 and PLSCR1 mRNAs was greatest in endometrial stromal cells, but there was transient expression in uterine luminal and superficial glandular epithelial cells. P4 alone did not induce expression of DDX58 and PLSCR1 mRNAs; however, intrauterine injections of IFNT did induce expression of DDX58 and PLSCR1 mRNAs in the endometria of nonpregnant ewes independent of effects of P4. These results indicate that IFNT induces expression of DDX58 and PLSCR1 in ovine endometrial cells via the classical STAT1-mediated cell signaling pathway. Based on their known biological effects, DDX58 and PLSCR1 are IFN-stimulated genes, which may increase the antiviral status of cells of the pregnant uterus to protect against viral infection and/or enhance secretion of type I IFNs that inhibit viral replication.