The aim of this study was to determine the ultrastructure of cross-sectioned zonae pellucidae of in vitro-matured and ovulated pig oocytes before or after sperm penetration in vitro and in vivo, respectively. The in vitro and in vivo (ovulated) oocytes and zygotes (fertilized in vitro and in vivo) were fixed with glutaraldehyde either directly or after pretreatment with ruthenium red and saponin, processed and then examined using transmission electron microscopy. The thickness of the zona pellucida, as measured on the section of the specimens with largest diameter fixed with glutaraldehyde, differed between the in vivo (9.19 +/- 0.47 microm) and in vitro (5.95 +/- 0.51 microm) oocytes. The in vivo oocytes had a rather thick external mesh-like structure, whereas it was much thinner in the in vitro oocytes. This mesh-like external rim was less apparent in both in vivo and in vitro zygotes. Obvious differences in the density of the lattice formed by the fixed zonae pellucidae were visible between the outer and inner (ad-oolemmal) zonae. The outer area always formed a concentrically arrayed fibrillar network, whereas the inner area showed a much more compact, trabecule-like mesh. However, both areas, but particularly the outer network, were much more compacted after the zona reaction. Clear differences in the degree of fibrillar aggregation of the inner zona area were also observed between in vitro and in vivo zygotes, being much higher in the latter. This fibrillar network was more clearly visible in the zygotes pretreated with ruthenium red and saponin; the in vitro zygotes had a fibrillar, radially oriented set of parallel fibrils, whereas it was much more aggregated and trabecule-like in the in vivo zygotes. These results demonstrate that the fine structure of the zona pellucida and the zona reaction at sperm penetration differ between pig oocytes fertilized in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, the ultrastructure of the outer and inner pig zonae pellucidae has a different network organization.
H Funahashi, H Ekwall, K Kikuchi and H Rodriguez-Martinez
L Holm, H Ekwall, GJ Wishart and Y Ridderstrale
Sperm storage tubules from the utero-vaginal junction of chickens, quails and turkeys were analysed for calcium and zinc using X-ray microanalysis of ultra-rapidly frozen tissue in a scanning electron microscope. This technique enabled the tubular fluid surrounding the stored spermatozoa and the intracellular content of the cells of the sperm storage tubules to be analysed separately and, by using standards with known concentrations, their elemental concentrations were estimated. The mean (+/- SEM) concentration of calcium in the tubular fluid from chickens, quails and turkeys was 17 +/- 3, 19 +/- 3 and 17 +/- 4 mmol kg(-1) wet weight, respectively. The intracellular calcium concentration of the cells of the tubules did not differ significantly from these values and was also similar in the mucosal epithelial cells of the utero-vaginal junction. Zinc was localized in the cells of turkey sperm storage tubules and tubular fluid, but at low concentrations. No zinc could be detected in corresponding structures from chickens and quails. The concentration of calcium in the tubular fluid is within the range known to inhibit the motility of spermatozoa, supporting this function for calcium during storage. Zinc is known to depress turkey sperm metabolism and it may also be involved in inducing quiescence of spermatozoa during storage in this species.
J. L. Courtens, H. Ekwall, M. Paquignon and L. Plöen
Summary. Boar semen was analysed by electron microscopy coupled to image analysis and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, during the usual process for freezing and thawing in field conditions. Freeze–substitution and freeze–quenching permitted recording of real or potential intracellular ice before, during, and after freezing. Heads and flagella displayed two different osmotic properties before freezing. Heads were dehydrated progressively before and during freezing, while flagella were hydrated before freezing and were only dehydrated during freezing. All parts of the thawed cells were rehydrated. Ice crystal damage was mostly present in frozen mitochondria and axonemes and the acrosomes were strongly affected by thawing. The total amounts of Na, Cl, Ca, K, Mg, and Zn per cell were only elevated in frozen and thawed midpieces while the heads were permeable both to water and elements at that time.
Keywords: boar; spermatozoa; freezing; water; element concentrations; electron microscopy; image analysis; X-ray spectrophotometry
S Sancho, I Casas, H Ekwall, F Saravia, H Rodriguez-Martinez, J E Rodriguez-Gil, E Flores, E Pinart, M Briz, N Garcia-Gil, J Bassols, A Pruneda, E Bussalleu, M Yeste and S Bonet
This study evaluated the effects of cooling, freezing and thawing on the plasma membrane integrity, kinetics and expression of two sugar transporters glucose transporter-3 and -5 (GLUT-3 and GLUT-5) in spermatozoa from Iberian boars. Semen samples were collected twice weekly from eight young, fertile Iberian boars of the ‘Entrepelado’ and ‘Lampiño’ breeds. The samples were suspended in a commercial extender and refrigerated to 17 °C for transport to the laboratory (step A), where they were further extended with a lactose–egg yolk-based extender and chilled to 5 °C (step B) prior to freezing in the presence of glycerol (3%). Spermatozoa were assessed for plasma membrane integrity and sperm motility at each of the steps, including post-thaw (step C). Aliquots were also prepared for immunocytochemical localisation of the sugar transporters (fixed and thin smears for transmission and scanning electron microscopy levels respectively) and for SDS–PAGE electrophoresis and subsequent western blotting, using the same antibodies (rabbit anti-GLUT-3 and anti-GLUT-5 polyclonal antibodies). The results showed lower percentages of progressively motile spermatozoa at step C in both breeds, while the percentage of live spermatozoa was significantly lower only in the ‘Entrepelado’ breed. The results obtained from electron microscopy clearly showed that Iberian boar spermatozoa expressed the hexose transporters, GLUT-3 and GLUT-5. The pattern of expression, in terms of location and concentration, was characteristic in each case but, in the case of isoform GLUT-5, it remained constant during the different steps of freezing–thawing protocol. These results indicate that cryopreservation affects the status of sperm cells of Iberian boars by altering the distribution of some membrane receptors and decreasing the percentage values of parameters linked to sperm quality.