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  • Author: H. H. CONLEY x
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H. W. HAWK and H. H. CONLEY

Summary.

Sponges impregnated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) were left in the vaginae of parous ewes from 8 to 25 days after oestrus. The ewes were inseminated with 0·25 ml of fresh ram semen 45 hr after removal of the sponges. Ewes in natural oestrus were inseminated as controls. In half of the ewes of each group, the reproductive tract was ligated at the vulvovaginal junction at the time of insemination to prevent the loss of sperm cells by drainage. Ewes were killed 24 hr after insemination and the number of spermatozoa in each segment of the reproductive tract was estimated.

While 62% of the spermatozoa were recovered from ewes in which the vulvovaginal junction was ligated, less than 1% were recovered from the ewes with unligated tracts, indicating the loss of large numbers of sperm cells by drainage. Fewer spermatozoa and a higher proportion of tailless sperm heads were recovered from ewes treated with MAP than from control ewes.

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S C Loux, A J Conley, K E Scoggin, H El-Sheikh Ali, P Dini and B A Ball

Steroid production varies widely among species, with these differences becoming more pronounced during pregnancy. As a result, each species has its own distinct pattern of steroids, steroidogenic enzymes, receptors, and transporters to support its individual physiological requirements. Although the circulating steroid profile is well characterized during equine pregnancy, there is much yet to be explored regarding the factors that support steroidogenesis and steroid signaling. To obtain a holistic view of steroid-related transcripts, we sequenced chorioallantois (45 days, 4 months, 6 months, 10 months, 11 months, and post-partum) and endometrium (4 months, 6 months, 10 months, 11 months, and diestrus) throughout gestation, then looked in-depth at transcripts related to steroid synthesis, conjugation, transportation, and signaling. Key findings include: 1) differential expression of HSD17B isoforms among tissues (HSD17B1 high in the chorioallantois, while HSD17B2 is the dominant form in the endometrium) 2) a novel isoform with homology to SULT1A1 is the predominant sulfotransferase transcript in the chorioallantois; and 3) nuclear estrogen (ESR1, ESR2) and progesterone (PGR) expression is minimal to nonexistant in the chorioallantois and pregnant endometrium. Additionally, several hypotheses have been formed, including the possibility that the 45-day chorioallantois is able to synthesize steroids de novo from acetate and that horses utilize glucuronidation to clear estrogens from the endometrium during estrous, but not during pregnancy. In summary, these findings represent an in-depth look at equine steroid-related transcripts through gestation, providing novel hypotheses and future directions for equine endocrine research.

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H El-Sheikh Ali, E L Legacki, K E Scoggin, S C Loux, P Dini, A Esteller-Vico, A J Conley, S D Stanley and B A Ball

Equine placentitis is associated with alterations in maternal peripheral steroid concentrations, which could negatively affect pregnancy outcome. This study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms related to steroidogenesis and steroid-receptor signaling in the equine placenta during acute placentitis. Chorioallantois (CA) and endometrial (EN) samples were collected from mares with experimentally induced placentitis (n = 4) and un-inoculated gestationally age-matched mares (control group; n = 4). The mRNA expression of genes coding for steroidogenic enzymes (3βHSD, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, CYP19A1, SRD5A1, and AKR1C23) was evaluated using qRT-PCR. The concentration of these enzyme-dependent steroids (P5, P4, 5αDHP, 3αDHP, 20αDHP, 3β-20αDHP, 17OH-P, DHEA, A4, and estrone) was assessed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in both maternal circulation and placental tissue. Both SRD5A1 and AKR1C23, which encode for the key progesterone metabolizing enzymes, were downregulated (P < 0.05) in CA from the placentitis group compared to controls, and this downregulation was associated with a decline in tissue concentrations of 5αDHP (P < 0.05), 3αDHP (P < 0.05), and 3β-20αDHP (P = 0.052). In the EN, AKR1C23 was also downregulated in the placentitis group compared to controls, and this downregulation was associated with a decline in EN concentrations of 3αDHP (P < 0.01) and 20αDHP (P < 0.05). Moreover, CA expression of CYP19A1 tended to be lower in the placentitis group, and this reduction was associated with lower (P = 0.057) concentrations of estrone in CA. Moreover, ESR1 (steroid receptors) gene expression was downregulated (P = 0.057) in CA from placentitis mares. In conclusion, acute equine placentitis is associated with a local withdrawal of progestins in the placenta and tended to be accompanied with estrogen withdrawals in CA.