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Haolin Zhang, Ming Yi, Yan Zhang, Hongyan Jin, Wenxin Zhang, Jingjing Yang, Liying Yan, Rong Li, Yue Zhao and Jie Qiao

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder with unclear etiology and unsatisfactory management. Effects of diets on the phenotype of PCOS were not fully understood. In the present study, we applied 45 and 60% high-fat diets (HFDs) on a rat model of PCOS induced by postnatal DHEA injection. We found that both DHEA and DHEA+HFDs rats exhibited reproductive abnormalities, including hyperandrogenism, irregular cycles and polycystic ovaries. The addition of HFDs, especially 60% HFDs, exaggerated morphological changes of ovaries and a number of metabolic changes, including increased body weight and body fat content, impaired glucose tolerance and increased serum insulin levels. Results from qPCR showed that DHEA-induced increased expression of hypothalamic androgen receptor and LH receptor were reversed by the addition of 60% HFDs. In contrast, the ovarian expression of LH receptor and insulin receptor mRNA was upregulated only with the addition of 60% HFDs. These findings indicated that DHEA and DHEA+HFDs might influence PCOS phenotypes through distinct mechanisms: DHEA affects the normal function of hypothalamus–pituitary–ovarian axis through LH, whereas the addition of HFDs exaggerated endocrine and metabolic dysfunction through ovarian responses to insulin-related mechanisms. We concluded that the addition of HFDs yielded distinct phenotypes of DHEA-induced PCOS and could be used for studies on both reproductive and metabolic features of the syndrome.

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Yingying Han, Shuhao Zhang, Haotong Zhuang, Sijie Fan, Jiayi Yang, Liwei Zhao, Weidong Bao, Fuli Gao, Haolin Zhang, Zhengrong Yuan and Qiang Weng

Adiponectin is an important white adipose-derived adipokine linked to energy homeostasis and reproductive function. This study aims to reveal the expression and role of adiponectin system in ovaries under the acute malnutrition. In this study, 48 h food deprivation significantly inhibited ovarian growth by suppressing cell proliferation and inducing cell apoptosis in the ovaries of gonadotrophin-primed immature mice. It was also accompanied by significantly decelerated basic metabolism (glucose, triacylglycerol and cholesterol), varied steroid hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and estradiol) and vanishment of the peri-ovarian fat. It is noteworthy that after acute fasting, the adiponectin levels in ovaries rather than in blood were significantly elevated. Immunohistochemical study demonstrated that adiponectin and its receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) primarily appeared in ovarian somatic and/or germ cells, and their protein expressions were up-regulated in the ovaries from fasted mice. Further in vitro study verified that adipoR1/2 agonist obviously inhibited follicle-stimulating hormone-induced oocyte meiotic resumption, while the antagonist significantly enhanced the percentage of oocyte maturation in the absence of follicle-stimulating hormone. Furthermore, the building up of peri-ovarian fat under physiological status in mice showed a positive correlation with both the hypertrophy of adipocytes and growth of ovaries. Taken together, these findings indicate that the up-regulation of adiponectin system disturb the normal female reproductive function under the malnutrition status, and it may be associated with the loss of peri-ovarian fat depots.

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Yingying Han, Shuhao Zhang, Haotong Zhuang, Sijie Fan, Jiayi Yang, Liwei Zhao, Weidong Bao, Fuli Gao, Haolin Zhang, Zhengrong Yuan and Qiang Weng

Adiponectin (ADIPOQ, encoded by Adipoq) is an important white adipose-derived adipokine linked to energy homeostasis and reproductive function. This study aims to reveal the expression and role of the adiponectin system in the ovaries under acute malnutrition. In this study, 48-h food deprivation significantly inhibited ovarian growth by suppressing cell proliferation and inducing cell apoptosis in the ovaries of gonadotrophin-primed immature mice. It was also accompanied by significantly decelerated basic metabolism (glucose, triacylglycerol and cholesterol), varied steroid hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and estradiol) and vanishment of the peri-ovarian fat. It is noteworthy that after acute fasting, the adiponectin levels in ovaries rather than in blood were significantly elevated. Immunohistochemical study demonstrated that adiponectin and its receptors (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) primarily appeared in ovarian somatic and/or germ cells, and their protein expressions were upregulated in the ovaries from fasted mice. Further in vitro study verified that ADIPOR1/2 agonist obviously inhibited follicle-stimulating hormone-induced oocyte meiotic resumption, while the antagonist significantly enhanced the percentage of oocyte maturation in the absence of follicle-stimulating hormone. Furthermore, the build up of peri-ovarian fat under physiological status in mice showed a positive correlation with both the hypertrophy of adipocytes and growth of ovaries. Taken together, these findings indicate that the upregulation of the adiponectin system disturbs the normal female reproductive function under the malnutrition status, and it may be associated with the loss of peri-ovarian fat depots.