During early pregnancy, progesterone stimulates the secretion of proteins and other molecules that support the developing conceptus. Some gilts are able to support conceptus development as early as 110 days of age. The objective of this study was to evaluate the onset of responsiveness of the prepubertal uterus to progesterone. Thirty gilts were assigned to receive 2.2 mg progesterone kg−1 body mass per day or corn oil daily for 14 days starting at 6, 46, 76, 106, and 136 days of age. Hysterectomies were performed the day after the last treatment of progesterone, and the uterine horns were weighed and flushed with sterile saline (0.85% NaCl). Recovered flushings were analysed for total luminal protein, retinol binding protein, uteroferrin, prostaglandin E and prostaglandin F. An interaction between age and progesterone occurred for uterine wet mass (P < 0.001). Progesterone did not affect the uterine mass of gilts that underwent hysterectomy at 20 days of age, but did increase the uterine mass (P < 0.05) in other age groups. Progesterone increased (P < 0.01) the amount of total luminal protein in all but the youngest gilts. An increase in the amounts of retinol binding protein and uteroferrin (P < 0.001) by progesterone was first observed in 90-day-old gilts. Prostaglandins exhibited a different age-related pattern. The amount of prostaglandin E was increased (P < 0.001) by progesterone treatment in gilts aged 90–150 days, with a greater (P < 0.05) response at 120 days than at 90 days old. The response at 150 days old decreased (P < 0.05) to that observed at day 90. The response of prostaglandin F to progesterone followed a similar age-related pattern. Therefore, uterine responsiveness to progesterone develops between 20 and 90 days after birth, and uterine mass responds earlier than the secretory responses measured in our study.