Summary. Gonadotrophin binding to rat Leydig cells after a single administration of ethylene dimethanesulphonate (EDS) (75mg/kg i.p.) was followed by using intratesticular microdoses of 125I-labelled hCG, whilst corresponding morphological changes in the testicular interstitium were studied with light and electron microscopy. No discernible effect on 125I-labelled hCG binding compared with controls was observed until 24 h after treatment. Between 24 and 32 h a sharp decline in binding occurred which was correlated with extensive Leydig cell destruction. By 48 h the 125I-labelled hCG binding was negligible and no morphologically recognizable Leydig cells were found at this time. The specific binding remained low until 21 days after treatment and then a marked increase occurred to give nearly normal levels by 49 days. This was consistent with a generalized repopulation of the interstitium with Leydig cells, seemingly the result of differentiation of fibroblast-like precursor cells.