Overnourishing adolescent ewes throughout pregnancy promotes maternal tissue synthesis at the expense of placental growth, which in turn leads to a major decrease in lamb birth weight. As maternal dietary intakes are inversely related to peripheral progesterone concentrations in these adolescent dams, it was hypothesized that sup-optimal progesterone concentrations in overnourished dams may compromise the growth of the differentiating conceptus resulting in fewer uterine caruncles being occupied and, hence, fewer placentomes formed. This hypothesis was tested by supplementing overnourished adolescent dams with exogenous progesterone during early pregnancy and determining the impact on pregnancy outcome at term. Embryos recovered from superovulated adult ewes inseminated by a single sire were transferred in singleton to the uterus of peripubertal adolescent recipients. After transfer of embryos, ewes were offered a moderate or high amount of a complete diet (n=11 per group). A further high intake group received a progesterone supplement each day from day 5 to day 55 of gestation (term=145 days) to restore circulating progesterone concentrations to moderate values throughout the first third of pregnancy (n=11). For ewes establishing pregnancies (n=7 per group), live weight gain during the first 100 days of gestation was 66+/-4, 323+/-17 and 300+/-7 g per day, body condition score at term was 2.1+/-0.05, 3.0+/-0.08 and 3.1+/-0.07 units and the duration of gestation after spontaneous delivery was 148+/-1.7, 144+/-0.8 and 143+/-0.8 days for the moderate intake, high intake and high intake plus progesterone groups, respectively. At delivery, fetal cotyledon mass (136+/-12.1 versus 57+/-8.2g, P<0.001) and lamb birth weight (5164+/-151 versus 2893+/-381 g, P<0.001) were higher in moderate intake than in high intake dams. Progesterone supplementation restored circulating concentrations to moderate values during the first third of gestation. Lamb birth weight in the high intake plus progesterone group (4150+/-389 g) was intermediate between the high intake (P<0.02) and moderate intake (P<0.05) groups, but this change in birth weight was not associated with corresponding changes in fetal cotyledon mass (76+/-10.3 g). Moreover, the number of fetal cotyledons was similar in all three groups. Thus, progesterone did not directly affect the growth of the fetal cotyledon but may have influenced placental vascularity, blood flow or nutrient transfer capacity or alternatively the development of the embryonic inner cell mass.
JM Wallace, DA Bourke, P Da Silva and RP Aitken
TS Gadd, RP Aitken, JM Wallace and DC Wathes
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of administering a high plane diet during early to mid-gestation on the uterine and placental insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system and on systemic IGF-I concentrations in pregnant adolescent ewes with restricted placental growth. Embryos recovered from superovulated ewes inseminated by a single sire were transferred in singleton to the uterus of adolescent recipients. After transfer ewes were offered a high (H) or moderate (M) amount of a complete diet calculated to promote rapid or normal maternal growth rates, respectively. Five ewes from each group were switched from either M to H or H to M diets at day 52 of gestation. Maternal and fetal blood samples and placental tissues were collected from all animals at day 104. Ewes on the high plane diet from mid-gestation (HH, MH groups) had restricted placental mass (P < 0.01) and tended to have smaller fetuses. This was associated with increased maternal plasma IGF-I concentrations (P < 0.001). The pattern of expression of components of the IGF system in the uterus and placenta was studied by in situ hybridization. IGF-I mRNA concentrations were below the limit of detection. IGF-II mRNA expression was high in the fetal mesoderm and present in maternal stroma, but was not influenced by nutritional treatment. In contrast, IGF binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1) mRNA expression was higher (P < 0.05) and IGFBP-3 mRNA expression was lower (P < 0.05) in the endometrial glands of ewes in HH and MH groups. In the fetal trophoblast, IGFBP-3 mRNA expression was higher in the MH group. Type 1 IGF receptor expression was increased (P < 0. 01) in the luminal epithelium of the HM group and IGFBP-2 mRNA expression was highest in the placentome capsule of ewes in the HH group. Together, these results indicate that reprogramming of the uterine and placental IGF axis by maternal nutrition could contribute to placental growth retardation in growing adolescent sheep.
P Da Silva, RP Aitken, SM Rhind, PA Racey and JM Wallace
The influence of maternal nutrition during pregnancy on anterior pituitary gonadotrophin gene expression and ovarian development in sheep fetuses during late gestation was investigated. Embryos recovered from superovulated adult ewes that had been inseminated by a single sire were transferred, singly, into the uteri of adolescent recipients. After embryo transfer, adolescent ewes were offered a high or moderate amount of a complete diet. Pregnancies were terminated at day 131 +/- 0.6 of gestation and the fetal brain, anterior pituitary gland and gonads were collected. Gonadotrophin gene expression (LHbeta and FSHbeta subunits) in the fetal pituitary gland was examined using in situ hybridization. Ovarian follicular development was quantified in haematoxylin- and eosin-stained ovarian sections embedded in paraffin wax. Six dams that were offered a high nutrient intake carried normal-sized fetuses (weight within +/- 2 SD of mean weight for control fetuses from dams fed a moderate level of complete diet) and 13 dams carried growth-restricted fetuses (weight +/- 2 SD of mean weight for control fetuses from dams fed a moderate level of complete diet). Mean placental masses in these groups were 354 +/- 24.5 and 230 +/- 21.1 g, respectively, compared with 442 +/- 54.3 g in the dams that were offered a moderate nutrient intake (n = 6). Growth-restricted fetuses from dams offered a high nutrient intake showed higher pituitary LHbeta mRNA expression (P < 0.05) than normal-sized fetuses from dams offered a moderate nutrient intake (252 +/- 21.6 and 172 +/- 23.6 nCi g(-1), respectively). FSHbeta mRNA expression was not influenced by growth status. Fewer follicles (primarily in the resting pool) were observed in the ovaries of both growth-restricted (P < 0.002) and normal-sized fetuses from dams offered a high nutrient intake (P < 0.01) compared with normal-sized fetuses from dams offered a moderate nutrient intake. Irrespective of nutritional treatment, the total number of follicles was positively associated with placental mass (P < 0.01). Thus, a high maternal nutrient intake during adolescent pregnancy had a negative influence on ovarian follicular development in fetuses as determined during late gestation.
P Da Silva, RP Aitken, SM Rhind, PA Racey and JM Wallace
The onset of puberty in prenatally growth-restricted versus normally grown lambs of both sexes, born in April and housed under natural photoperiod, was examined. Singleton pregnancies were established and adolescent ewes were offered a high or moderate nutrient intake throughout gestation. Placental mass was reduced (P < 0.001) in high compared with moderate intake dams and resulted in the birth of growth-restricted and normal birth weight offspring, respectively. At birth, female lambs weighed 3.43 kg versus 5.03 kg (P < 0.001; n = 14 per group) and male lambs weighed 2.75 kg versus 5.18 kg (P < 0.001; n = 7 per group) in growth-restricted and normal birth weight groups, respectively. Lambs suckled for 12 weeks and thereafter were fed ad libitum until week 43 of age. Growth-restricted lambs had lower preweaning live weight gains and this difference was more pronounced in male (P < 0.05) than in female lambs (P = 0.07). Thereafter, live weight remained lower (P < 0.05) in growth-restricted than in normally grown lambs of both sexes until week 25 of age. In females, the time of onset of puberty was similar in the two groups. All females ovulated and there were no differences in the number of ovarian cycles recorded or in the incidence of aberrant ovarian function. In males, testosterone concentrations and testicular volume were lower in growth-restricted compared with normally developed lambs from birth until weeks 28 and 35 of age, respectively (P < 0.05). The seasonal increase in plasma testosterone concentrations occurred later in growth-restricted than in normally developed lambs (P < 0.01) but the timing of maximum peak concentrations was similar. Peak testosterone concentrations were lower (P < 0.05) in growth-restricted than in normal male lambs.
CJ Ashworth, N Hoggard, L Thomas, JG Mercer, JM Wallace and RG Lea
Placental tissues from humans, rodents and farm animals contain leptin and its receptor. Leptin produced by the human placenta has the same size, charge and immunoreactivity as leptin produced by adipose tissue. However, the expression of human placental leptin appears to be regulated by a placenta-specific upstream enhancer. In this review the occurrence of leptin and its receptor in a range of species and placental types is described, and its significance during pregnancy discussed. Placental leptin contributes to the increase in maternal circulating concentrations of leptin during late pregnancy when it is likely to have an endocrine role in regulating maternal energy balance. Placental leptin may have angiogenic and immunomodulatory activities, which affect the placenta in an autocrine or paracrine manner. It also appears to affect fetal growth and development by binding to leptin receptors present in fetal organs.