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Chad S Driscoll Department of Animal Science, Developmental Epigenetics Laboratory, Reproductive and Developmental Sciences Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA

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Jaehwan Kim Department of Animal Science, Developmental Epigenetics Laboratory, Reproductive and Developmental Sciences Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA
Department of Animal Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA

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Mohamed Ashry Department of Animal Science, Developmental Epigenetics Laboratory, Reproductive and Developmental Sciences Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA

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Jason G Knott Department of Animal Science, Developmental Epigenetics Laboratory, Reproductive and Developmental Sciences Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA

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Transcription factor AP2 gamma (TFAP2C) is a well-established regulator of the trophoblast lineage in mice and humans, but a handful of studies indicate that TFAP2C may play an important role in pluripotency. Here, we hypothesize and provide new evidence that TFAP2C functions as an activator of trophoblast and pluripotency genes during preimplantation embryo development.

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Cansu Agca Department of Animal Science, Department of Computer Science, Department of Molecular Biology, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA and Monsanto Company, St Louis, Missouri 63198, USA

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James E Ries Department of Animal Science, Department of Computer Science, Department of Molecular Biology, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA and Monsanto Company, St Louis, Missouri 63198, USA

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Sarah J Kolath Department of Animal Science, Department of Computer Science, Department of Molecular Biology, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA and Monsanto Company, St Louis, Missouri 63198, USA

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Jae-Hwan Kim Department of Animal Science, Department of Computer Science, Department of Molecular Biology, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA and Monsanto Company, St Louis, Missouri 63198, USA

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Lawrence J Forrester Department of Animal Science, Department of Computer Science, Department of Molecular Biology, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA and Monsanto Company, St Louis, Missouri 63198, USA

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Eric Antoniou Department of Animal Science, Department of Computer Science, Department of Molecular Biology, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA and Monsanto Company, St Louis, Missouri 63198, USA

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Kristin M Whitworth Department of Animal Science, Department of Computer Science, Department of Molecular Biology, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA and Monsanto Company, St Louis, Missouri 63198, USA

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Nagappan Mathialagan Department of Animal Science, Department of Computer Science, Department of Molecular Biology, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA and Monsanto Company, St Louis, Missouri 63198, USA

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Gordon K Springer Department of Animal Science, Department of Computer Science, Department of Molecular Biology, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA and Monsanto Company, St Louis, Missouri 63198, USA

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Randall S Prather Department of Animal Science, Department of Computer Science, Department of Molecular Biology, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA and Monsanto Company, St Louis, Missouri 63198, USA

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Matthew C Lucy Department of Animal Science, Department of Computer Science, Department of Molecular Biology, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA and Monsanto Company, St Louis, Missouri 63198, USA

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The LH surge initiates the luteinization of preovulatory follicles and causes hormonal and structural changes that ultimately lead to ovulation and the formation of corpora lutea. The objective of the study was to examine gene expression in ovarian follicles (n = 11) collected from pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) approaching estrus (estrogenic preovulatory follicle; n = 6 follicles from two sows) and in ovarian follicles collected from pigs on the second day of estrus (preovulatory follicles that were luteinized but had not ovulated; n = 5 follicles from two sows). The follicular status within each follicle was confirmed by follicular fluid analyses of estradiol and progesterone ratios. Microarrays were made from expressed sequence tags that were isolated from cDNA libraries of porcine ovary. Gene expression was measured by hybridization of fluorescently labeled cDNA (preovulatory estrogenic or -luteinized) to the microarray. Microarray analyses detected 107 and 43 genes whose expression was decreased or increased (respectively) during the transition from preovulatory estrogenic to -luteinized (P<0.01). Cells within preovulatory estrogenic follicles had a gene-expression profile of proliferative and metabolically active cells that were responding to oxidative stress. Cells within preovulatory luteinized follicles had a gene-expression profile of nonproliferative and migratory cells with angiogenic properties. Approximately, 40% of the discovered genes had unknown function.

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