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Haolin Zhang, Ming Yi, Yan Zhang, Hongyan Jin, Wenxin Zhang, Jingjing Yang, Liying Yan, Rong Li, Yue Zhao, and Jie Qiao

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder with unclear etiology and unsatisfactory management. Effects of diets on the phenotype of PCOS were not fully understood. In the present study, we applied 45 and 60% high-fat diets (HFDs) on a rat model of PCOS induced by postnatal DHEA injection. We found that both DHEA and DHEA+HFDs rats exhibited reproductive abnormalities, including hyperandrogenism, irregular cycles and polycystic ovaries. The addition of HFDs, especially 60% HFDs, exaggerated morphological changes of ovaries and a number of metabolic changes, including increased body weight and body fat content, impaired glucose tolerance and increased serum insulin levels. Results from qPCR showed that DHEA-induced increased expression of hypothalamic androgen receptor and LH receptor were reversed by the addition of 60% HFDs. In contrast, the ovarian expression of LH receptor and insulin receptor mRNA was upregulated only with the addition of 60% HFDs. These findings indicated that DHEA and DHEA+HFDs might influence PCOS phenotypes through distinct mechanisms: DHEA affects the normal function of hypothalamus–pituitary–ovarian axis through LH, whereas the addition of HFDs exaggerated endocrine and metabolic dysfunction through ovarian responses to insulin-related mechanisms. We concluded that the addition of HFDs yielded distinct phenotypes of DHEA-induced PCOS and could be used for studies on both reproductive and metabolic features of the syndrome.

Free access

Huan Zhang, Xiaohua Jiang, Yuanwei Zhang, Bo Xu, Juan Hua, Tieliang Ma, Wei Zheng, Rui Sun, Wei Shen, Howard J Cooke, Qiaomei Hao, Jie Qiao, and Qinghua Shi

In mammals, the primordial follicle pool, providing all oocytes available to a female throughout her reproductive life, is established perinatally. Dysregulation of primordial follicle assembly results in female reproductive diseases, such as premature ovarian insufficiency and infertility. Female mice lacking Dicer1 (Dicer), a gene required for biogenesis of microRNAs, show abnormal morphology of follicles and infertility. However, the contribution of individual microRNAs to primordial follicle assembly remains largely unknown. Here, we report that microRNA 376a (miR-376a) regulates primordial follicle assembly by modulating the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (Pcna), a gene we previously reported to regulate primordial follicle assembly by regulating oocyte apoptosis in mouse ovaries. miR-376a was shown to be negatively correlated with Pcna mRNA expression in fetal and neonatal mouse ovaries and to directly bind to Pcna mRNA 3′ untranslated region. Cultured 18.5 days postcoitum mouse ovaries transfected with miR-376a exhibited decreased Pcna expression both in protein and mRNA levels. Moreover, miR-376a overexpression significantly increased primordial follicles and reduced apoptosis of oocytes, which was very similar to those in ovaries co-transfected with miR-376a and siRNAs targeting Pcna. Taken together, our results demonstrate that miR-376a regulates primordial follicle assembly by modulating the expression of Pcna. To our knowledge, this is the first microRNA–target mRNA pair that has been reported to regulate mammalian primordial follicle assembly and further our understanding of the regulation of primordial follicle assembly.

Open access

Ying Huang, Jiang-Man Gao, Chun-Mei Zhang, Hong-Cui Zhao, Yue Zhao, Rong Li, Yang Yu, and Jie Qiao

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive disorder that has many characteristic features including hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance and obesity, which may have significant implications for pregnancy outcomes and long-term health of women. Daughters born to PCOS mothers constitute a high-risk group for metabolic and reproductive derangements, but no report has described potential growth and metabolic risk factors for such female offspring. Hence, we used a mouse model of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-induced PCOS to study the mechanisms underlying the pathology of PCOS by investigating the growth, developmental characteristics, metabolic indexes and expression profiles of key genes of offspring born to the models. We found that the average litter size was significantly smaller in the DHEA group, and female offspring had sustained higher body weight, increased body fat and triglyceride content in serum and liver; they also exhibited decreased energy expenditure, oxygen consumption and impaired glucose tolerance. Genes related to glucolipid metabolism such as Pparγ, Acot1/2, Fgf21, Pdk4 and Inhbb were upregulated in the liver of the offspring in DHEA group compared with those in controls, whereas Cyp17a1 expression was significantly decreased. However, the expression of these genes was not detected in male offspring. Our results show that female offspring in DHEA group exhibit perturbed growth and glucolipid metabolism that were not observed in male offspring.