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  • Author: K. W. HUMPHREY x
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K. W. HUMPHREY

Oestrogens are essential for implantation in progesterone-treated, ovariectomized rats and mice (Psychoyos, 1961; Humphrey, 1967). It has been suggested that oestrogens induce blastocyst nidation by releasing histamine and perhaps other mast cell factors (Shelesnyak, 1963). If this is so, then it would be expected that mast cell factors and substances that cause their release (histamine liberators, Paton, 1957) should be as effective as oestrogens in inducing implantation, and that oestrogen-induced implantations should be affected by antihistamines and by changes in the tissue levels of histamine. The dependence of delayed blastocysts on mast cell or adrenal factors was investigated in the following experiments.

Randomly bred mice of the QS strain received gonadotrophins to induce ovulation and mating; the day of finding the vaginal plug was termed Day 1 of pregnancy. The mated mice were ovariectomized between

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K. W. HUMPHREY

Summary.

Zygotes recovered from the oviducts and uteri of mice treated with the anti-oestrogens dms, MRL 37 or MER 25 implanted normally after transfer to pseudopregnant host mice, but treatment of the hosts with an anti-oestrogen inhibited implantation. Induction of deciduomata in intact and ovariectomized mice was prevented by prior treatment with oestradiol or one of the anti-oestrogens, although MER 25 and MRL 37 were less effective in ovariectomized mice. When implantation was delayed by ovariectomy, MRL 37 and MER 25 largely prevented oestradiol-induced implantation on Day 8 without affecting the recovery of blastocysts, but dms induced implantation in some mice and did not significantly affect the induction of implantation by oestradiol. dms, and to a lesser extent MRL 37, caused oestrogenic changes in the endometrium on Day 4. It is concluded that the antifertility actions of dms are due to oestrogenicity, but those of MER 25 and MRL 37 may be due to their anti-oestrogenic properties.

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K. W. HUMPHREY and C. W. EMMENS

Summary.

The effects of erythro-MEA (erythro-ethyl-α′-methyl-4,4′dihydroxybibenzyl) on tubal transport and implantation in the mouse were studied. When given on Days 1 to 3 of pregnancy, erythro-MEA causes tube-locking of some ova, reduces the recovery of ova to 60% of that in controls, and has similar effects to oestradiol. Treatment with this compound inhibits the deciduoma reaction and implantation of transferred ova in pseudopregnant and progesterone-treated, ovariectomized mice. When given to mice with delayed blastocysts, erythro-MEA induces implantation in 50% of mice and prevents oestradiol-induced implantation in others. In this system, erythro-MEA has both oestrogenic and antioestrogenic properties, but it is concluded that its anti-fertility actions may, in part, be due to its anti-oestrogenic property.