A series of experiments was conducted to examine the mechanism by which removal of the thyroid glands in seasonally suppressed rams brings about rapid testicular growth. In the first experiment, thyroidectomy at the nadir of the testicular cycle (late winter) initiated testis growth without any detectable change in the extent of spermatogenesis compared with sham-operated controls. The serum concentration of FSH, but not LH, was also markedly increased by thyroidectomy. In the second experiment, serum FSH concentration was again increased by thyroidectomy in late winter but there was no effect of thyroidectomy on LH concentration, LH pulses (measured in frequent blood samples) or testosterone concentration. Furthermore, there was no evidence of a change in central dopaminergic inhibition of GnRH, as measured by the pulsatile LH response to an i.m. injection of the dopaminergic D(2) agonist bromocriptine or antagonist sulpiride. The rapid increase in FSH concentration occurred despite a markedly increased serum inhibin A concentration in thyroidectomized rams. Therefore, the efficacy of inhibin feedback was examined by testing the FSH-suppressive effect of an inhibin preparation (5 ml charcoal-stripped bovine follicular fluid i.v.) in long-term thyroidectomized and thyroid intact castrated rams. Bovine follicular fluid suppressed FSH concentrations in control rams as expected but in marked contrast, was completely without effect in thyroidectomized animals. In castrated rams, the FSH concentration was only marginally increased by thyroidectomy, indicating that there is a major component of the mediation of the effects of thyroidectomy that is testicular in origin. It was concluded that a reduction in the ability of endogenous inhibin to inhibit FSH release at the pituitary, rather than a hypothalamic mechanism, is the primary cause of the stimulation of testis growth by thyroidectomy.
GM Anderson, KR Lapwood, PG Knight and TJ Parkinson
K Whittington, SJ Assinder, T Parkinson, KR Lapwood and HD Nicholson
Oxytocin is present in the male reproductive tract and has been shown to increase contractility in the epididymis and to modulate steroidogenesis. This study investigated the effects of oxytocin in the testis in vivo, and the presence and cellular localization of oxytocin receptors in the reproductive tract of rams. During the breeding season, mature rams underwent efferent duct ligation before injection of either oxytocin (20 microg) or oxytocin plus an oxytocin antagonist (20 microg) into the testicular artery; the contralateral testicular artery received saline. Injection of oxytocin caused a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the concentration of spermatozoa collected from the rete testis. This effect was not observed after treatment with the oxytocin antagonist plus oxytocin. Western blot analysis performed using a specific oxytocin receptor antibody (020) identified a single immunoreactive band of 66 kDa in testicular and epididymal tissue. This band was present in uterine tissue but not in liver or muscle. Immunocytochemistry identified oxytocin receptors on Leydig and Sertoli cells of the testis, on epithelial cells throughout the epididymis, on peritubular smooth muscle cells in the cauda epididymidis, and on the epithelial cells and circular smooth muscle layer of the ductus deferens. These findings indicate that oxytocin can modulate sperm transport in the ram testis. A role for oxytocin in promoting sperm transit is supported by the localization of oxytocin receptors in the cauda epididymis and ductus deferens, and the presence of receptors on Leydig, Sertoli and epididymal epithelial cells provides further evidence that oxytocin may be involved in the local regulation of steroidogenesis.