Invasion or damage of the male reproductive system is one of the reported outcomes of viral infection. Current studies have documented that SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19, can damage the male reproductive system in large part by inflammatory damage caused by a cytokine storm. However, whether SARS-CoV-2 can infect the human testis directly and enter semen is controversial. Other adverse effects of SARS-CoV-2 on male reproduction are also of concern and require comprehensive evaluation. Here, we analyze the invasiveness of SARS-CoV-2 in the testis and examine reported mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 interferes with male reproduction. Long-term implications of SARS-CoV-2 infection on male reproduction are also discussed. It should be emphasized that although COVID-19 may induce testicular damage, a substantial decrease in male reproductive capacity awaits clinical evidence. We propose that there is an urgent need to track male COVID-19 patients during their recovery. The development of suitable experimental models, including human reproductive organoids, will be valuable to further investigate the viral impact on reproduction for current and future pandemics.
Triclosan (TCS) exists ubiquitously in the environment. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that TCS exerts endocrine disruptive effects on reproduction, but data from human populations are limited and conflicting. The objective of our study was to investigate whether high urinary TCS concentration is adversely associated with early reproductive outcomes in women undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET). This prospective cohort study was conducted from September 2015 to June 2016, including 156 infertile women undergoing their first IVF-ET cycle. Two spot urine samples were collected prior to oocyte retrieval for TCS detection using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Linear regression model and binary logistic regression model were used to evaluate the association between urinary TCS concentrations and IVF outcomes. The intake of aquaculture food may have positive influences on urinary TCS concentrations. After adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), baseline follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), antral follicle count (AFC) and smoking status, a significant decrease of top quality embryo formation and implantation rate was observed in patients with urinary TCS concentration greater than or equal to the median level (0.045 μmol/mol Cr). We concluded that TCS exposure may exert negative effects during early stages of human reproduction.