The actions of HCG and PMSG for different periods and of testosterone on the immature rat testis were studied. Short-term administration of HCG (1-3 days) induced an early meiotic and postmeiotic stimulatory effect but a decrease in spermatogonial numbers. Administration of HCG for longer periods (10 days) caused a reduction in numbers of all cell types. Treatment with HCG + PMSG reduced the amount of inhibition, while PMSG alone resulted in histological and humoral signs of stimulation of the interstitial tissue and the meiotic and postmeiotic stages; the numbers of spermatogonia were not affected. Testosterone caused stimulation of the meiotic and postmeiotic stages and a reduced number of spermatogonia. It is concluded that while PMSG directly stimulates spermatogonia, HCG acts through testosterone secretion at the meiotic and postmeiotic stages. The early inhibitory effects of HCG and testosterone on spermatogonial numbers could be ascribed to the inhibition of endogenous FSH by androgens.