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T. L. AVERY, M. L. FAHNING and E. F. GRAHAM

Summary.

(1) Purified swine fsh and lh effectively induced superovulation in mature and immature as well as pregnant bovine females. Sixty-one of seventy-five treated cows and calves ovulated, producing a total of 1716 ovulation points which ranged from one to eighty-eight with a mean of 28·13. Twenty-eight of thirty-two cows and thirty-three of forty-three calves responded to treatment by ovulating. Calves produced an average of 12·46 more ovulations than did cows. (2) Neither the addition of prolactin to the ovulatory dosage of lh nor the administration of lh for 2 consecutive days proved superior to the single injection of lh as an ovulatory procedure for calves. (3) Calves produced 54·03% of their total ovulations on the right ovary compared to 51·17% for cows. (4) Nineteen cows, having undergone oestrus synchronization, produced an average of 7·89 ovulations more than were produced by nine similar individuals, superovulated without prior treatment with progesterone. (5) 60·21% of all cows superovulated demonstrated oestrus. A significantly greater number of cows receiving progesterone as well as those undergoing enucleation of corpora lutea exhibited oestrus than did cows not receiving treatment prior to superovulation. (6) Superovulated cows exhibiting oestrus produced an average of 3·82 ovulations more than were produced by superovulated cows failing to show heat.

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M. L. FAHNING, R. H. SCHULTZ and E. F. GRAHAM

Summary.

Uterine fluid and blood serum samples were collected from 100 adult dairy cows during various stages of the oestrous cycle and analysed for their free amino acid content. A total of twenty-five free amino acids and amino compounds were identified in uterine fluids while only twenty-three were identified in blood serum. The concentration of the total and of most of the individual free amino acids was greater in uterine fluid than in blood serum at all stages of the oestrous cycle. The total content of free amino acids and the concentration of several individual free amino acids in uterine fluids showed cyclical variations. The significance of free amino acids in uterine fluids is discussed.

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R. H. SCHULTZ, M. L. FAHNING and E. F. GRAHAM

Summary.

Chemical analyses were conducted on uterine fluid and blood serum collected from eighty-eight normal adult dairy cows during various days of the oestrous cycle. Uterine fluid contained higher concentrations of reducing substances, potassium, inorganic phosphate and alkaline and acid phosphatase activity than blood serum while levels of calcium and sodium were higher in blood serum than in uterine fluid, supporting the concept that bovine uterine fluid is a product of active secretion and not of simple diffusion from the blood. Concentrations of reducing substances, total protein, potassium, chloride, inorganic phosphate and alkaline and acid phosphatase activity in bovine uterine fluid were all found to vary with the stage of the oestrous cycle, indicating that, in the case of these substances at least, secretion into the uterine lumen is under hormonal control. The level of alkaline phosphatase in the blood serum was also found to vary with the stage of the oestrous cycle.

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A. G. HUNTER, W. L. JOHNSON, L. D. S. BARKER, M. L. FAHNING and R. H. SCHULTZ

Summary.

The seminal vesicle of the bat (Myotis lucifugus) contained a protein toxic to mice and rabbits but not to bats. This protein was precipitated with ammonium sulphate, non-dialysable, inactivated by papain and relatively heat stable. The lethal action was caused by hypotension due to a general relaxant effect on smooth muscle. Epinephrine only momentarily elevated blood pressure. The toxin had no effect on electrical transmission along the motor-nerve axon and across the neuromuscular junction. Haematocrit values increased significantly after bat seminal vesicle was injected, while a highly significant (P> 0·01) decrease in the proportion of circulating lymphocytes and a highly significant (P>0·01) increase in proportion of circulating heterophils occurred. Isolated mouse duodenum and uterine preparations showed a diminution in contraction frequency and a decrease in muscle tone in the presence of the toxin. This was reversible by washing the toxin from the system.

The hypothesis was proposed that this seminal vesicle protein enters the female bat during copulation, blocks sperm transport, and alters the phagocytic system, thus allowing bat spermatozoa to remain in the female reproductive tract over an extended period of time.

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A. G. HUNTER, L. D. S. BARKER, W. L. JOHNSON, M. L. FAHNING and R. H. SCHULTZ

Summary.

The antigenicity of male bat reproductive organs was studied using agar-gel diffusion. Four precipitin lines formed with testis and anti-testis, six lines with epididymis and anti-epididymis, and six lines with ampulla and anti-ampulla sera. Tissue extracts of liver, spleen, heart and uterus cross-reacted with the three antisera to produce three lines. Ampulla, epididymis and testis possessed at least one, three and one organ-specific antigens, respectively.

Nine proteins were detected in the seminal vesicles by agar-gel electrophoresis. One of these possessed potent toxic properties when injected into rabbits and mice. The toxic protein was isolated by zonal electrophoresis and by chromatography on Sephadex G-200. It migrated electrophoretically as a pre-albumin, had a molecular weight of approximately 44,600 and an LD50 value of 162μg/kg. The relationship between this protein and the unique phenomenon of bat sperm survival is unknown.

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L. F. ARCHBALD, R. H. SCHULTZ, M. L. FAHNING, H. J. KURTZ and R. ZEMJANIS

Summary.

The histological appearance of the cells of the rete ovarii in heifers suggests that this ovarian structure could be secretory in nature. A holocrine type of secretion appears to be involved and is restricted to the dioestrous phase of the oestrous cycle.

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T. L. AVERY, M. L. FAHNING, V. G. PURSEL and E. F. GRAHAM

Summary.

Thirty inovulations of bovine ova were conducted. Superovulated ova as well as ova from single points of ovulation were transferred by both surgical and non-surgical means to synchronized and non-synchronized recipients. Two transfers entailed the use of follicular ova.

None of fourteen non-surgical transfers, made via the cervix or via the rectum, definitely resulted in pregnancy, nor did twelve transfers conducted by depositing ova within the peritoneal cavities of selected hosts.

One of four transfers, conducted by means of laparotomy, resulted in pregnancy and terminated in the full term birth of a 98-lb bull calf.

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L. F. ARCHBALD, R. H. SCHULTZ, M. L. FAHNING, H. J. KURTZ and R. ZEMJANIS

Eighteen pregnant cows were individually housed and allowed to calve normally. None of the cows retained fetal membranes. Tissues were obtained for study on Days 1, 3, 5, 7, 11, 15, 19, 23, 27, 31, 45 and 60 post partum. Because the exact time of calving of each animal was not known, the term `Day 1' represented an approximated period of 24 hr beginning from the time of observation of the calf with its dam in the maternity stall.

Following exposure of the internal genitalia as described by Schultz, Fahning & Graham (1966), caruncular and intercaruncular uterine samples were obtained from an area at the base of the uterine horn by an in-vivo serial surgical technique (Archbald, 1969). Uterine

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M. L. FAHNING, R. H. SCHULTZ, E. F. GRAHAM, J. D. DONKER and H. W. MOHRENWEISER

Since the introduction of 6α-methyl-17α-acetoxyprogesterone (map or medroxy-progesterone acetate) many trials and research projects have been conducted using this orally active progestin. Considerable variation in conception rate following synchronization of oestrus with this compound has been reported (Hansel, 1965; Zimbelman, 1965). The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of a specific dosage of map (RepromixR, The Upjohn Company, Michigan) on fertility when administered under specifically controlled conditions.

Forty Holstein heifers, 15 to 18 months of age, were used in this study. These animals, as part of another experiment, were being fed two different types of hay (Hay types A and B) with twenty animals assigned to each group. Ten animals were selected from each group to be recycled while the remaining ten animals from each served as

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R. H. SCHULTZ, H. B. BURCALOW, M. L. FAHNING, E. F. GRAHAM and A. F. WEBER

Height measurements of surface and glandular epithelium, cell to nucleus length ratios and glandular lumen sizes have been employed for evaluating the endometrial activity of the uterus in the cow (Asdell, DeAlba & Roberts, 1948; Dziuk, Donker, Nichols & Peterson, 1958; Foley & Reece, 1948; Weeth & Herman, 1952; Johnson, 1965). These techniques, however, have not been completely satisfactory. For example, epithelial height measurements were reported to vary greatly in areas of tissue closely adjacent to one another (Dziuk et al., 1958). Johnson (1965) found that epithelial height varied between and within periods of the oestrous cycle to such an extent that this measurement was not valid for estimating the stage of the cycle. Hultquist (1959) described a technique of karyometry used on β-cells of the