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  • Author: M. R. JAINUDEEN x
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M. R. JAINUDEEN and E. S. E. HAFEZ

Summary.

The effects of androgens on differentiation of embryonic ovaries during early pregnancy in the cow have been studied. Androgens injected between the allantochorion and the endometrium of cows (37 to 80 days pregnant) did not transform the gonads of female foetuses in the male direction but were capable of masculinizing the external genitalia of bovine female foetuses.

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M. R. JAINUDEEN and E. S. E. HAFEZ

Summary.

Two treatments of PMSG and HCG were used to induce multiple ovulation in nine adult crab-eating monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). The number of ovulations ranged from one to eight. Eggs were recovered from the oviducts of three untreated monkeys. Failure to recover eggs from gonadotrophin-treated monkeys was partly due to failure of the ruptured follicle to release the egg.

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M. R. JAINUDEEN, C. B. KATONGOLE and R. V. SHORT

Summary.

Testosterone was measured in the peripheral blood plasma of eleven male Asiatic elephants, using a competitive protein-binding assay. When the animals showed no signs of musth, the testosterone levels were low (<0·2 to 1·4 ng/ml) ; as they began to come into musth and the temporal glands started to enlarge, the testosterone levels rose (4·3 to 13·7 ng/ml), and when the animals were in full musth, with discharging temporal glands and an aggressive temperament, the levels were extremely high (29·6 to 65·4 ng/ml). Musth may therefore be comparable to the rutting behaviour of some seasonally breeding mammals, although, in the elephant, there is some indication that it may be induced by sexual activity.

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M. R. JAINUDEEN, J. F. EISENBERG and N. TILAKERATNE

Summary.

During the course of a programme to breed the Asiatic elephant, Elephas maximus, in captivity, the oestrous cycles of eleven adult females were studied. Two methods were used for detecting oestrus : (1) daily testing with a male elephant, and (2) urogenital smear cytology.

Overt signs of oestrus were not observed but 'standing' oestrus was detected in ten animals. The duration of oestrus ranged from 2 to 8 days with a mode of 4 days. Oestrous cycles in six animals ranged from 18 to 27 days with a mean of 22 days. Urogenital smear cytology failed to indicate accurately the onset of behavioural oestrus but increases in the number of cornified cells may occur before, during and slightly after behavioural oestrus. Considerable mating activity occurred during oestrus. A description of mating behaviour is presented.

The findings are discussed in relation to breeding elephants in captivity and to the phenomenon of temporal gland activity.

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M. R. JAINUDEEN, E. S. E. HAFEZ and J. A. LINEWEAVER

Summary.

The induction of superovulation was studied in thirteen calves 4 to 24 weeks of age. Multiple ovulations were induced by 2000 i.u. pms followed by an intravenous injection of either nih-lh or hcg. The ovulatory response was determined at laparotomy 48 to 64 hr after lh injection. Eleven of the calves showed 1 to 50 ovulation points. All levels of nih-lh produced satisfactory ovulatory responses. Recovery and fertilization rates of eggs were low.

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M. R. JAINUDEEN, J. F. EISENBERG and J. B. JAYASINGHE

Summary.

The procedure employed for the collection of semen from a captive male elephant is described. Sperm-rich and sperm-free ejaculates were obtained. Seven sperm-rich ejaculates were evaluated.

Seminal characteristics investigated in the elephant compared favourably with those of other domestic animals of normal fertility. The mean concentration of spermatozoa was 1200×106/ml in the sperm-rich ejaculates. Individual spermatozoa measured 58·5 μ (average) in length.