Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 7 of 7 items for

  • Author: MARTTI KORMANO x
Clear All Modify Search
Free access

MARTTI KORMANO

Summary.

The development of the temperature difference between the rectum and testis has been studied in 20-, 25-, 30- and 35-day-old as well as adult rats. Temperatures were recorded with thermocouple needles without anaesthesia. The temperature difference was approximately 3·5° C in the adult and 35-day-old animals. The difference was about 2° C in the 25- and 30-day-old rats and about 1° C in the youngest ones. The three younger groups (20, 25 and 30 days) had significantly higher intratesticular temperatures than the adult rats. In the young rats variations in body temperature between 35·6° C and 38·4° C did not significantly affect the rectum-testis temperature difference. In the adult rats, the difference began to increase when the rectal temperature rose above 37·6° C. The relationship of developing temperature difference to the onset of endocrine puberty, functional maturity of the seminiferous tubules and development of the scrotal sac is discussed.

Free access

MIKKO NIEMI and MARTTI KORMANO

Summary.

The non-specific esterase in the seminiferous tubules of the adult rat testis was shown to be water-soluble and its activity resistant to an organophosphorus (E-600) inhibitor and to p-chloromercuric benzoate. The enzyme exhibited substrate preference for substituted naphthol-AS-type acetates and indoxyl acetates rather than simple naphthol acetate. Histochemically, it behaved as an esterase of the C-type.

The localization of the C-esterase activity in the seminiferous epithelium strongly suggests that the Sertoli cells are the site of enzymatic activity. Cyclical changes have been described in the activity of the Sertoli cells during the spermatogenic cycle. Enzymatic activity was highest during the acrosome stages 3 to 5 when the maturing spermatids had their heads deep in the epithelium. Weakest enzymatic activity was recorded at the time of the sperm release.

During the pubertal development of the testis a weak C-type esterase activity was seen in the supporting cells of the immature seminiferous tubules. This activity increased as these cells differentiated to mature Sertoli cells. In 20-day rats the adult level of enzyme activity was reached in those tubules where germ cell maturation was most advanced.

Free access

MATTI HÄRKÖNEN and MARTTI KORMANO

Summary.

The concentrations of glycogen, glucose, ATP, glucose-6-phosphate and lactate were studied in normal and cryptorchid rat testes using enzymatic pyridine nucleotide methods. With the exception of ATP, all the substrates were significantly higher in the cryptorchid testes. The decrease of the energy metabolites and the accumulation of lactate were also studied in testes incubated in the absence of O2 at the temperatures of 33·6° C and 36·6° C. The metabolic rate of the incubated organs was estimated in terms of the rate of use of high energy phosphate ( ~ P) calculated from changes in ATP, glucose and glycogen. A good parallelism between hexose utilization and lactate production was observed in both normal and cryptorchid testes. A rapid mobilization of glycogen, suggesting activation of phosphorylase, was observed in incubated cryptorchid testes. The calculated oxygen consumption of cryptorchid testes was about 100% higher than that of the normal testes at the same temperature. It is suggested that the basic metabolic rate of the interstitial tissue is higher than that of the seminiferous tubules.

Free access

AARNE I. KOSKIMIES and MARTTI KORMANO

Summary.

Proteins in fluids from the seminiferous tubules and rete testis of rats were studied with a high resolution electrophoretic technique, utilizing a step gradient, polyacrylamide gel system. Both fluids contained a number of specific bands, i.e. proteins not seen in serum or in intratesticular lymph. The rete testis fluid contained more serum proteins than the seminiferous tubule fluid. The albumin—globulin ratio was also greater in the former fluid. Two-dimensional separations showed that the bulk of specific proteins moved as prealbumins. Strong esterase and acid phosphatase activities were located in the region of the specific proteins with the intermediate mobility in acrylamide gel. The origin of these proteins and their significance is discussed in relation to the functional differences between the seminiferous tubules and the rete testis.

Free access

AARNE I. KOSKIMIES and MARTTI KORMANO

Department of Anatomy, University of Helsinki, Finland

(Received 21st October 1974)

The fluid transporting spermatozoa out of the testis through the epididymis is known to undergo many changes. About 50% of the fluid secreted by the seminiferous tubules is reabsorbed by the first part of the epididymal duct system (Crabo & Gustafsson, 1964; Levine & Marsh, 1971). Between the caput epididymidis and the ductus deferens, a further 50% of the remaining fluid is reabsorbed.

Seminiferous tubule fluid and rete testis fluid contain several protein fractions not seen in the serum, as has been shown by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Kormano, Koskimies & Hunter, 1971; Koskimies & Kormano, 1973). The fate and significance of most of these proteins is unknown. Recently, it has been shown electrophoretically that bovine epididymal plasma from the cauda region contains at least three proteins not detected in the rete testis fluid or serum (Amann, Killian & Benton,

Free access

AARNE I. KOSKIMIES, MARTTI KORMANO and AITO LAHTI

Seminiferous tubule fluid of the testis is unique in many respects, due to the existence of a barrier mechanism which prevents the entry of various endogenous and administered substances (for references, see Setchell, 1970). Recent studies on ram rete testis fluid obtained by catheter implantation technique (Voglmayr, Waites & Setchell, 1966), suggest that all the individual serum proteins are present in the rete testis fluid but in much lower concentrations. The existence of a specific protein was reported by Johnson & Setchell (1968). Assuming that the rete testis fluid might represent the fluid secreted by the seminiferous tubules, Johnson & Setchell (1968) came to the conclusion that a very little immunoglobulin does enter into the seminiferous tubule fluid, immunoglobulin being observed in the immunoelectrophoretic study of the rete testis fluid. However, in

Free access

AARNE I. KOSKIMIES, MARTTI KORMANO and OLOF ALFTHAN

Summary.

Seminiferous tubule fluid was collected by micropuncture from ten human testes immediately after orchidectomy and subjected to high resolution step gradient acrylamide gel electrophoresis. The protein patterns of the fluid were compared with those of serum and intratesticular lymph. The seminiferous tubule fluid always contained a number of proteins not seen in serum or in testicular lymph and a few proteins which were electrophoretically identical with those in serum. The bulk of these relatively weak serum bands consisted of albumin. Disturbance of spermatogenesis did not influence either the appearance of specific proteins or the degree of serum contamination.

The present results are interpreted to mean that in man, as in animals, there is an effective blood—testis barrier. The specific proteins of the seminiferous tubules may be elaborated by Sertoli cells.