Endometrial stromal cells (EnSCs) and decidual stromal cells (DSCs) originate from fibroblastic precursors located around the vessels of the human nonpregnant endometrium and the pregnant endometrium (decidua), respectively. Under the effect of ovarian or pregnancy hormones, these precursors differentiate (decidualize), changing their morphology and secreting factors that appear to be essential for the normal development of pregnancy. However, the different physiological context – that is, non-pregnancy vs pregnancy – of those precursors (preEnSCs, preDSCs) might affect their phenotype and functions. In the present study, we established preEnSC and preDSC lines and compared the antigen phenotype and responses to decidualization factors in these two types of stromal cell line. Analyses with flow cytometry showed that preEnSCs and preDSCs exhibited a similar antigen phenotype compatible with that of bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells. The response to decidualization in cultures with progesterone and cAMP was evaluated by analyzing changes in cell morphology by microscopy, prolactin and IL-15 secretion by enzyme immunoassay and the induction of apoptosis by flow cytometry. In all four analyses, preDSCs showed a significantly higher response than preEnSCs. The expression of progesterone receptor (PR), protein kinase A (PKA) and FOXO1 was studied with Western blotting. Both types of cells showed similar levels of PR and PKA, but the increase in PKA RI subunit expression in response to decidualization was again significantly greater in preDSCs. We conclude that preEnSCs and preDSCs are equivalent cells but differ in their ability to decidualize. Functional differences between them probably derive from factors in their different milieus.